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Review

The Window Matters: A Systematic Review of Time Restricted Eating Strategies in Relation to Cortisol and Melatonin Secretion

1
Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, London SE1 1UL, UK
2
HOOKE London owned by Health Longevity Optimisation Ltd., London EC1V 3QJ, UK
3
Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, CA 94945, USA
4
Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Evangelia Charmandari
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082525
Received: 29 May 2021 / Revised: 18 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 23 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Endocrine Disorders)
Time-Restricted Eating is an eating pattern based on the circadian rhythm which limits daily food intake (usually to ≤12 h/day), unique in that no overt restriction is imposed on the quality, nor quantity, of food intake. This paper aimed to examine the effects of two patterns of TRE, traditional TRE, and Ramadan fasting, on two markers of circadian rhythm, cortisol and melatonin. PubMed and Web of Science were searched up to December 2020 for studies examining the effects of time restricted eating on cortisol and melatonin. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria. All Ramadan papers found statistically significant decrease in melatonin (p < 0.05) during Ramadan. Two out of the three Ramadan papers noted an abolishing of the circadian rhythm of cortisol (p < 0.05). The non-Ramadan TRE papers did not examine melatonin, and cortisol changes were mixed. In studies comparing TRE to control diets, Stratton et al. found increased cortisol levels in the non-TRE fasting group (p = 0.0018) and McAllister et al. noted no difference. Dinner-skipping resulted in significantly reduced evening cortisol and non-significantly raised morning cortisol. Conversely, breakfast skipping resulted in significantly reduced morning cortisol. This blunting indicates a dysfunctional HPA axis, and may be associated with poor cardio-metabolic outcomes. There is a paucity of research examining the effects of TRE on cortisol and melatonin. The contrasting effect of dinner and breakfast-skipping should be further examined to ascertain whether timing the feeding window indeed has an impact on circadian rhythmicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: time restricted eating; Ramadan; circadian rhythm; chrono-nutrition; intermittent fasting; time restricted feeding; cortisol; melatonin time restricted eating; Ramadan; circadian rhythm; chrono-nutrition; intermittent fasting; time restricted feeding; cortisol; melatonin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chawla, S.; Beretoulis, S.; Deere, A.; Radenkovic, D. The Window Matters: A Systematic Review of Time Restricted Eating Strategies in Relation to Cortisol and Melatonin Secretion. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2525. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082525

AMA Style

Chawla S, Beretoulis S, Deere A, Radenkovic D. The Window Matters: A Systematic Review of Time Restricted Eating Strategies in Relation to Cortisol and Melatonin Secretion. Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2525. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082525

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chawla, Shreya, Spyridon Beretoulis, Aaron Deere, and Dina Radenkovic. 2021. "The Window Matters: A Systematic Review of Time Restricted Eating Strategies in Relation to Cortisol and Melatonin Secretion" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2525. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082525

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