Next Article in Journal
Inflammatory Potential of Diet Is Associated with Biomarkers Levels of Inflammation and Cognitive Function among Postmenopausal Women
Previous Article in Journal
Food Choice Decisions of Collegiate Division I Athletes: A Qualitative Exploratory Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Association between Maternal Stress and Glucocorticoid Rhythmicity in Human Milk
 
 
Article

Presence and Levels of Galactosyllactoses and Other Oligosaccharides in Human Milk and Their Variation during Lactation and According to Maternal Phenotype

1
Danone Nutricia Research, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
glyXera GmbH, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
3
Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
4
Department of Chemical Biology & Drug Discovery, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
5
Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
6
Department of Paediatrics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Dr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital, University of Munich Hospitals, 80337 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nadja Haiden and Paola Roggero
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2324; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072324
Received: 7 May 2021 / Revised: 1 July 2021 / Accepted: 2 July 2021 / Published: 6 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Breastfeeding and Human Milk Research)
Among the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS), the galactosyllactoses (GLs) are only limitedly studied. This study aims to describe the presence and relative levels of HMOS, including GLs, in human milk (HM) according to maternal Secretor and Lewis (SeLe) phenotype and lactation stage. Relative levels of 19 HMOS were measured in 715 HM samples collected in the first 4 months postpartum from 371 donors participating in the PreventCD study. From a subset of 24 Dutch women (171 HM samples), samples were collected monthly up to 12 months postpartum and were additionally analyzed for relative and absolute levels of β6′-GL, β3′-GL and α3′-GL. Maternal SeLe phenotype or HM group was assigned based on the presence of specific fucosylated HMOS. Most HMOS, including β6′- and β3′-GL, were present in the vast majority (≥75%) of HM samples, whereas others (e.g., LNDFH II, 2′-F-LNH and α3′-GL) only occurred in a low number (<25%) of samples. Clear differences were observed between the presence and relative levels of the HMOS according to the maternal phenotype and lactation stage. Absolute concentrations of β6′-GL and β3′-GL were higher in HM group IV samples compared to samples of the other three HM groups. β3′-GL was also higher in HM group II samples compared to HM group I samples. β3′-GL and β6′-GL were stable over lactation stages. In conclusion, presence and levels of HMOS vary according to HM group and lactation stage. Not all HMOS behave similarly: some HMOS depend strongly on maternal phenotype and/or lactation stage, whereas others do not. β3′-GL and β6′-GL were present in low concentrations in over 75% of the analyzed HM samples and showed differences between HM groups, but not between the lactation stages. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; oligosaccharides; HMOS; galactosyllactoses; lactation; human milk groups human milk; oligosaccharides; HMOS; galactosyllactoses; lactation; human milk groups
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Eussen, S.R.B.M.; Mank, M.; Kottler, R.; Hoffmann, X.-K.; Behne, A.; Rapp, E.; Stahl, B.; Mearin, M.L.; Koletzko, B. Presence and Levels of Galactosyllactoses and Other Oligosaccharides in Human Milk and Their Variation during Lactation and According to Maternal Phenotype. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2324. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072324

AMA Style

Eussen SRBM, Mank M, Kottler R, Hoffmann X-K, Behne A, Rapp E, Stahl B, Mearin ML, Koletzko B. Presence and Levels of Galactosyllactoses and Other Oligosaccharides in Human Milk and Their Variation during Lactation and According to Maternal Phenotype. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2324. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072324

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eussen, Simone R. B. M., Marko Mank, Robert Kottler, Xenia-Katharina Hoffmann, Alexander Behne, Erdmann Rapp, Bernd Stahl, M. Luisa Mearin, and Berthold Koletzko. 2021. "Presence and Levels of Galactosyllactoses and Other Oligosaccharides in Human Milk and Their Variation during Lactation and According to Maternal Phenotype" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2324. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072324

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop