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Review

Histamine Intolerance—The More We Know the Less We Know. A Review

1
Department of Clinical Allergology and Immunology, Oncological Institute of St. Elizabeth, Heydukova 2157/10, 812 50 Bratislava, Slovakia
2
Institute of Immunology and Allergology, Slovak Medical University, Limbová 12, 833 03 Bratislava, Slovakia
3
Institute of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine at Comenius University of Bratislava, Špitálska 24, 831 72 Bratislava, Slovakia
4
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Bratislava, Ružinovská 6, 821 01 Bratislava, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Academic Editors: Mariluz Latorre-Moratalla, Oriol Comas-Basté and M. Carmen Vidal-Carou
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072228
Received: 15 June 2021 / Revised: 25 June 2021 / Accepted: 25 June 2021 / Published: 29 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unfolding New Evidence on Histamine Intolerance)
The intake of food may be an initiator of adverse reactions. Food intolerance is an abnormal non-immunological response of the organism to the ingestion of food or its components in a dosage normally tolerated. Despite the fact that food intolerance is spread throughout the world, its diagnosing is still difficult. Histamine intolerance (HIT) is the term for that type of food intolerance which includes a set of undesirable reactions as a result of accumulated or ingested histamine. Manifestations may be caused by various pathophysiological mechanisms or a combination of them. The problem with a “diagnosis” of HIT is precisely the inconstancy and variety of the manifestations in the same individual following similar stimuli. The diagnosing of HIT therefore requires a complex time-demanding multidisciplinary approach, including the systematic elimination of disorders with a similar manifestation of symptoms. Among therapeutic approaches, the gold standard is a low-histamine diet. A good response to such a diet is considered to be confirmation of HIT. Alongside the dietary measures, DAO supplementation supporting the degradation of ingested histamine may be considered as subsidiary treatment for individuals with intestinal DAO deficiency. If antihistamines are indicated, the treatment should be conscious and time-limited, while 2nd or 3rd generation of H1 antihistamines should take precedence. View Full-Text
Keywords: histamine intolerance; histamine; diamine oxidase; DAO; low-histamine diet; probiotics; food intolerance histamine intolerance; histamine; diamine oxidase; DAO; low-histamine diet; probiotics; food intolerance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hrubisko, M.; Danis, R.; Huorka, M.; Wawruch, M. Histamine Intolerance—The More We Know the Less We Know. A Review. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2228. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072228

AMA Style

Hrubisko M, Danis R, Huorka M, Wawruch M. Histamine Intolerance—The More We Know the Less We Know. A Review. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2228. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072228

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hrubisko, Martin, Radoslav Danis, Martin Huorka, and Martin Wawruch. 2021. "Histamine Intolerance—The More We Know the Less We Know. A Review" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2228. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072228

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