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Review

Amino Acid-Induced Impairment of Insulin Signaling and Involvement of G-Protein Coupling Receptor

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Roberto Iacone
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2229; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072229
Received: 20 May 2021 / Revised: 18 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 29 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino Acid Nutrition and Metabolism Related to Health and Well Being)
Amino acids are needed for general bodily function and well-being. Despite their importance, augmentation in their serum concentration is closely related to metabolic disorder, insulin resistance (IR), or worse, diabetes mellitus. Essential amino acids such as the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been heavily studied as a plausible biomarker or even a cause of IR. Although there is a long list of benefits, in subjects with abnormal amino acids profiles, some amino acids are correlated with a higher risk of IR. Metabolic dysfunction, upregulation of the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, the gut microbiome, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, inflammation, and the collusion of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are among the indicators and causes of metabolic disorders generating from amino acids that contribute to IR and the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review summarizes the current understanding of the true involvement of amino acids with IR. Additionally, the involvement of GPCRs in IR will be further discussed in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: insulin resistance (IR); type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); branched-chain amino acid (BCAAs); metabolic dysfunction; gut microbiome; inflammation; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR); G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) insulin resistance (IR); type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); branched-chain amino acid (BCAAs); metabolic dysfunction; gut microbiome; inflammation; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR); G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zakaria, N.F.; Hamid, M.; Khayat, M.E. Amino Acid-Induced Impairment of Insulin Signaling and Involvement of G-Protein Coupling Receptor. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2229. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072229

AMA Style

Zakaria NF, Hamid M, Khayat ME. Amino Acid-Induced Impairment of Insulin Signaling and Involvement of G-Protein Coupling Receptor. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2229. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072229

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zakaria, Nur F., Muhajir Hamid, and Mohd E. Khayat 2021. "Amino Acid-Induced Impairment of Insulin Signaling and Involvement of G-Protein Coupling Receptor" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2229. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072229

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