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Article

Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis C and its Relationship with Frailty in Older Hospitalised Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
College of Medicine & Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide 5042, Australia
2
Department of General Medicine, Division of Medicine, Cardiac & Critical Care, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide 5042, Australia
3
Department of Geriatrics & Rehabilitation, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide 5042, Australia
4
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide 5042, Australia
5
Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anitra Carr and Adrian Gombart
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 2117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062117
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 17 June 2021 / Published: 20 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins C and D: Global and Population Health Perspectives)
Frailty is common in older hospitalised patients and may be associated with micronutrient malnutrition. Only limited studies have explored the relationship between frailty and vitamin C deficiency. This study investigated the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency and its association with frailty severity in patients ≥75 years admitted under a geriatric unit. Patients (n = 160) with a mean age of 84.4 ± 6.4 years were recruited and underwent frailty assessment by use of the Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS). Patients with an EFS score <10 were classified as non-frail/vulnerable/mildly frail and those with ≥10 as moderate–severely frail. Patients with vitamin C levels between 11–28 μmol/L were classified as vitamin C depleted while those with levels <11 μmol/L were classified as vitamin C deficient. A multivariate logistic regression model determined the relationship between vitamin C deficiency and frailty severity after adjustment for various co-variates. Fifty-seven (35.6%) patients were vitamin C depleted, while 42 (26.3%) had vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower among patients who were moderate–severely frail when compared to those who were non-frail/vulnerable/mildly frail (p < 0.05). After adjusted analysis, vitamin C deficiency was 4.3-fold more likely to be associated with moderate–severe frailty (aOR 4.30, 95% CI 1.33-13.86, p = 0.015). Vitamin C deficiency is common and is associated with a greater severity of frailty in older hospitalised patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: frailty; vitamin C deficiency; elderly; hospitalisation frailty; vitamin C deficiency; elderly; hospitalisation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sharma, Y.; Popescu, A.; Horwood, C.; Hakendorf, P.; Thompson, C. Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis C and its Relationship with Frailty in Older Hospitalised Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2117. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062117

AMA Style

Sharma Y, Popescu A, Horwood C, Hakendorf P, Thompson C. Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis C and its Relationship with Frailty in Older Hospitalised Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):2117. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062117

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sharma, Yogesh, Alexandra Popescu, Chris Horwood, Paul Hakendorf, and Campbell Thompson. 2021. "Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis C and its Relationship with Frailty in Older Hospitalised Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 2117. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062117

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