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Article

Higher Dietary Inflammation in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Study in Korea

by 1, 1,* and 2,3,*
1
Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul Women’s University, Seoul 01797, Korea
2
Gwang-ju Buk-gu Community Mental Health Center, Gwangju 61261, Korea
3
Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 61469, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hubertus Himmerich
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 2033; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062033
Received: 10 May 2021 / Revised: 7 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 13 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Inflammation is a risk factor for the onset and progression of schizophrenia, and dietary factors are related to chronic inflammation. We investigated whether the dietary inflammatory index (DII) is associated with schizophrenia in the Korean population. Of the 256 subjects who responded to the questionnaire, 184 subjects (117 controls; 67 individuals with schizophrenia) were included in this case-control study. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the dietary intakes of the study participants. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was used to assess the inflammatory potential of the participants’ diets. Dietary intakes of vitamin C, niacin, and folate were significantly reduced in the patients with schizophrenia. The patients with schizophrenia had higher E-DII scores than the controls (p = 0.011). E-DII was positively associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio = 1.254, p = 0.010). The additional analysis confirmed that E-DII was significantly associated with schizophrenia, especially in the third tertile group of E-DII scores (odds ratio = 2.731, p = 0.016). Our findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have more pro-inflammatory diets. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary inflammation; folate; niacin; schizophrenia; vitamin C dietary inflammation; folate; niacin; schizophrenia; vitamin C
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cha, H.Y.; Yang, S.J.; Kim, S.-W. Higher Dietary Inflammation in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Study in Korea. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2033. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062033

AMA Style

Cha HY, Yang SJ, Kim S-W. Higher Dietary Inflammation in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Study in Korea. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):2033. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062033

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cha, Hee Y., Soo J. Yang, and Sung-Wan Kim. 2021. "Higher Dietary Inflammation in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Study in Korea" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 2033. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062033

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