Inflammation is a risk factor for the onset and progression of schizophrenia, and dietary factors are related to chronic inflammation. We investigated whether the dietary inflammatory index (DII) is associated with schizophrenia in the Korean population. Of the 256 subjects who responded to the questionnaire, 184 subjects (117 controls; 67 individuals with schizophrenia) were included in this case-control study. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the dietary intakes of the study participants. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was used to assess the inflammatory potential of the participants’ diets. Dietary intakes of vitamin C, niacin, and folate were significantly reduced in the patients with schizophrenia. The patients with schizophrenia had higher E-DII scores than the controls (p
= 0.011). E-DII was positively associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio = 1.254, p
= 0.010). The additional analysis confirmed that E-DII was significantly associated with schizophrenia, especially in the third tertile group of E-DII scores (odds ratio = 2.731, p
= 0.016). Our findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have more pro-inflammatory diets.
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