Considering the lack of a comprehensive, multi-faceted overview of the ketogenic diet (KD) in relation to health issues, we compiled the evidence related to the use of the ketogenic diet in relation to its impact on the microbiome, the epigenome, diabetes, weight loss, cardiovascular health, and cancer. The KD diet could potentially increase genetic diversity of the microbiome and increase the ratio of Bacteroidetes
. The epigenome might be positively affected by the KD since it creates a signaling molecule known as β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). KD has helped patients with diabetes reduce their HbA1c and reduce the need for insulin. There is evidence to suggest that a KD can help with weight loss, visceral adiposity, and appetite control. The evidence also suggests that eating a high-fat diet improves lipid profiles by lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL), increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lowering triglycerides (TG). Due to the Warburg effect, the KD is used as an adjuvant treatment to starve cancer cells, making them more vulnerable to chemotherapy and radiation. The potential positive impacts of a KD on each of these areas warrant further analysis, improved studies, and well-designed randomized controlled trials to further illuminate the therapeutic possibilities provided by this dietary intervention.
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