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Article

Assessment of Body Composition and Dietary Intake in Nursing-Home Residents: Could Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic Be Used to Prevent Future Casualties in Older Individuals?

1
Laboratory for Nutrition Science, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska Cesta 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
BioTekna., 30020 Venice-Marcon, Italy
4
Institute for Successful Longevity, Florida State University, 1107 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose Lara
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051510
Received: 2 April 2021 / Revised: 27 April 2021 / Accepted: 27 April 2021 / Published: 29 April 2021
The population of older adults, especially those living in the nursing homes, is growing. The sedentary lifestyle and possible poor nutrition in nursing homes place residents (NHRs) at risk for body composition impairments, malnutrition, and, subsequently, numerous chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess body composition (including body fluids) and dietary intake in NHRs. The association between osteosarcopenic adiposity syndrome (OSA) and its components, osteopenic adiposity (OA), sarcopenic adiposity (SA), and adiposity-only (AD), and specific macro- and micro-nutrients was evaluated as well. The study included 84 participants (82.1% women), aged 65.3–95.2 years. Body composition was assessed with an advanced bioelectrical impedance device BIA-ACC® and dietary intake was assessed via 24-h recall and analyzed using “Nutrition” software. The majority (95%) of participants were overweight with a high body fat and low muscle and bone mass, leading to a high prevalence of OSA (>50%), OA (13%), and AD (26%). There were only a few participants with SA, and they were not analyzed. The highest extracellular water/total body water ratio was observed in the OSA participants, indicating a heightened inflammatory state. Participants in all three body composition categories had a similar nutrient intake, with protein, fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, and almost all micronutrients being far below recommendations. In conclusion, a high prevalence of OSA among NHRs accompanied by a poor dietary intake, could place these residents at a very high risk for COVID-19 infections. Therefore, optimization of body composition and nutritional status should be included along with standard medical care in order to provide better health maintenance, particularly in the COVID-19 era. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone; muscle mass; body fat; older adults; osteopenic/osteoporotic adiposity; sarcopenic adiposity; osteosarcopenic adiposity; T-score; S-score bone; muscle mass; body fat; older adults; osteopenic/osteoporotic adiposity; sarcopenic adiposity; osteosarcopenic adiposity; T-score; S-score
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MDPI and ACS Style

Keser, I.; Cvijetić, S.; Ilić, A.; Colić Barić, I.; Boschiero, D.; Ilich, J.Z. Assessment of Body Composition and Dietary Intake in Nursing-Home Residents: Could Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic Be Used to Prevent Future Casualties in Older Individuals? Nutrients 2021, 13, 1510. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051510

AMA Style

Keser I, Cvijetić S, Ilić A, Colić Barić I, Boschiero D, Ilich JZ. Assessment of Body Composition and Dietary Intake in Nursing-Home Residents: Could Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic Be Used to Prevent Future Casualties in Older Individuals? Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1510. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051510

Chicago/Turabian Style

Keser, Irena, Selma Cvijetić, Ana Ilić, Irena Colić Barić, Dario Boschiero, and Jasminka Z. Ilich 2021. "Assessment of Body Composition and Dietary Intake in Nursing-Home Residents: Could Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic Be Used to Prevent Future Casualties in Older Individuals?" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1510. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051510

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