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Article

Caffeine Consumption Habits of New Zealand Tertiary Students

1
School of Sport, Exercise and Nutrition, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
2
Centre for Metabolic Health Research, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
3
School of Health Sciences, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marilyn Cornelis
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051493
Received: 22 March 2021 / Revised: 20 April 2021 / Accepted: 24 April 2021 / Published: 28 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Adverse effects associated with excessive caffeine consumption combined with increasing numbers and availability of caffeine-containing products are causes for concern. Tertiary students may be at increased risk of consuming excessive amounts of caffeine due to seeking caffeinated products with well-known wakefulness effects and cognitive benefits. This study explored caffeine consumption habits of New Zealand tertiary students (317; ≥16-years) using a previously validated caffeine consumption habits (CaffCo) questionnaire. Most (99.1%) regularly consumed caffeinated products, especially chocolate, coffee and tea, with coffee, tea and energy drinks contributing most to total caffeine intake. Median estimated caffeine intake was 146.73 mg·day−1, or 2.25 mg·kgbw−1·day−1. Maximum and minimum intakes were 1988.14 mg·day−1 (23.51 mg·kgbw−1·day−1) and 0.07 mg·day−1 (0.02 mg·kgbw−1·day−1), respectively. One-third (34.4%) of caffeine consumers ingested caffeine above the adverse effect level (3 mg·kgbw−1·day−1) and 14.3% above the safe limit (400 mg·day−1). Most caffeine consumers (84.7%), reported experiencing at least one ‘adverse symptom’ post-caffeine consumption, of which 25.7% reported effects leading to distress or negatively impacting their life. Experiencing ‘adverse symptoms’ did not, however, curtail consumption in the majority of symptomatic participants (~77%). Public health initiatives directed at tertiary students may be important to reduce potential caffeine-related harm. View Full-Text
Keywords: side effects; safe limit; coffee; energy drink; ready to drink; tea side effects; safe limit; coffee; energy drink; ready to drink; tea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stachyshyn, S.; Ali, A.; Wham, C.; Knightbridge-Eager, T.; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K. Caffeine Consumption Habits of New Zealand Tertiary Students. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1493. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051493

AMA Style

Stachyshyn S, Ali A, Wham C, Knightbridge-Eager T, Rutherfurd-Markwick K. Caffeine Consumption Habits of New Zealand Tertiary Students. Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1493. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051493

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stachyshyn, Saskia, Ajmol Ali, Carol Wham, Tayla Knightbridge-Eager, and Kay Rutherfurd-Markwick. 2021. "Caffeine Consumption Habits of New Zealand Tertiary Students" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1493. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051493

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