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Potential Immunomodulatory Effects from Consumption of Nutrients in Whole Foods and Supplements on the Frequency and Course of Infection: Preliminary Results

1
Department of Dietetics, Institute of Health Sciences, College for Medical Sciences, University of Rzeszow, al/mjr. W. Kopisto 2a, 35-310 Rzeszów, Poland
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Centre for Innovative Research in Medical and Natural Sciences, College for Medical Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Warzywna 1A, 35-310 Rzeszów, Poland
3
Department of Human Immunology, Institute of Medicine, College for Medical Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Warzywna 1A., 35-310 Rzeszow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco J. Pérez-Cano
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041157
Received: 11 February 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 27 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
A diet rich in nutrients should be implemented in order to boost the immune system and prevent infections. To investigate which nutrients are commonly consumed, an anonymous survey was given to 120 individuals and their responses were collected. The respondents answered questions relating to their health status, and their consumption of nutrients and supplements that produce immunomodulating effects. The participants were also asked about any prior viral, bacterial or fungal infections experienced, and in particular, infection frequency, course, and duration. The data collected were subjected to a statistical analyses to assess the relationship between the reported frequency of infections and nutrients consumed including vitamins D3, A, C, E, selenium, zinc, iron, β-carotene, omega-3 fatty acids as well as live active probiotic bacteria. The findings show that vitamin and mineral supplementation did not positively affect the duration, frequency, or course of infections in the surveyed sample. An exception was vitamin D3 supplementation that was correlated to sporadic incidence of viral infections. Conversely, immunity was positively affected by consumption of natural nutrients contained in whole food (vitamin C, iron, selenium, omega-3 fatty acids), evidenced by lower incidences and milder courses of infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunomodulatory factors; immune system; nutrients; probiotics; omega-3 fatty acid immunomodulatory factors; immune system; nutrients; probiotics; omega-3 fatty acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Polak, E.; Stępień, A.E.; Gol, O.; Tabarkiewicz, J. Potential Immunomodulatory Effects from Consumption of Nutrients in Whole Foods and Supplements on the Frequency and Course of Infection: Preliminary Results. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1157. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041157

AMA Style

Polak E, Stępień AE, Gol O, Tabarkiewicz J. Potential Immunomodulatory Effects from Consumption of Nutrients in Whole Foods and Supplements on the Frequency and Course of Infection: Preliminary Results. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1157. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041157

Chicago/Turabian Style

Polak, Ewelina, Agnieszka E. Stępień, Olga Gol, and Jacek Tabarkiewicz. 2021. "Potential Immunomodulatory Effects from Consumption of Nutrients in Whole Foods and Supplements on the Frequency and Course of Infection: Preliminary Results" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1157. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041157

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