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Article

Use of Salt-Restriction Spoons and Its Associations with Urinary Sodium and Potassium in the Zhejiang Province of China: Results of a Population-Based Survey

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Department of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou 310051, China
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Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, No. 2024 E. Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
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National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 27 Nanwei Road, Beijing 100050, China
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Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 16992 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250014, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pedro Moreira
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041047
Received: 3 February 2021 / Revised: 2 March 2021 / Accepted: 20 March 2021 / Published: 24 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
In China, a major source of sodium is salt added during cooking. In this context, use of a salt-restriction spoon (SRS) has been promoted in public health campaigns and by health care providers. To describe use of and factors associated with SRS use, knowledge of correct use, and actual correct use. This study is a population-based, representative survey of 7512 residents, aged 18 to 69 years, of China’s Zhejiang Province. The survey, which was conducted in 2017 using a multistage random sampling strategy, collected demographic information, SRS use, and physical measurements; a 24-h urine collection was obtained from 1,496 of the participants. The mean age of the participants was 44.8 years, 50.1% were females, and over 1/3 (35.3%) were classified as hypertensive. Mean 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretions were 167.3(72.2) mmol/24 h and 38.2(18.2) mmol/24 h, respectively. Only 12.0% (899/7512) of participants once used or were currently using SRS; of the 899 users, 73.4% knew how to use the SRS correctly, and just 46.5% actually used it correctly. SRS use was more commonly associated with behavioral factors rather than socio-demographic factors. Initiation of SRS use by health care providers was associated with correct technical knowledge of SRS. Lower sodium-to-potassium ratio was associated with SRS use, while SRS use was not associated with urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Use of SRS was uncommon in Zhejiang Province of China. Given that a common source of sodium in China is salt added during cooking, use of SRS is an appealing strategy, ideally as part of a multi-component campaign. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypertension; urinary sodium and potassium excretion; salt-restriction spoon; knowledge; attitude and behavior hypertension; urinary sodium and potassium excretion; salt-restriction spoon; knowledge; attitude and behavior
MDPI and ACS Style

Du, X.; Zhao, D.; Henry, M.E.; Fang, L.; Xu, J.; Chen, X.; Zhang, J.; Bai, Y.; Wu, J.; Ma, J.; Zhong, J.; Yu, M.; Appel, L.J. Use of Salt-Restriction Spoons and Its Associations with Urinary Sodium and Potassium in the Zhejiang Province of China: Results of a Population-Based Survey. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1047. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041047

AMA Style

Du X, Zhao D, Henry ME, Fang L, Xu J, Chen X, Zhang J, Bai Y, Wu J, Ma J, Zhong J, Yu M, Appel LJ. Use of Salt-Restriction Spoons and Its Associations with Urinary Sodium and Potassium in the Zhejiang Province of China: Results of a Population-Based Survey. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1047. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041047

Chicago/Turabian Style

Du, Xiaofu, Di Zhao, Megan E. Henry, Le Fang, Jianwei Xu, Xiangyu Chen, Jie Zhang, Yamin Bai, Jing Wu, Jixiang Ma, Jieming Zhong, Min Yu, and Lawrence J. Appel 2021. "Use of Salt-Restriction Spoons and Its Associations with Urinary Sodium and Potassium in the Zhejiang Province of China: Results of a Population-Based Survey" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1047. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041047

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