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Article

Using a Paleo Ratio to Assess Adherence to Paleolithic Dietary Recommendations in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes

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Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden
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Region Jönköping County, 55592 Jönköping, Sweden
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Department of Food, Nutrition and Culinary Science, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Omorogieva Ojo and Antonio Brunetti
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030969
Received: 27 December 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
This study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial using Paleolithic diet and exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that increased adherence to the Paleolithic diet was associated with greater effects on blood pressure, blood lipids and HbA1c independent of weight loss. Participants were asked to follow a Paleolithic diet for 12 weeks and were randomized to supervised exercise or general exercise recommendations. Four-day food records were analyzed, and food items characterized as “Paleolithic” or “not Paleolithic”. Foods considered Paleolithic were lean meat, poultry, fish, seafood, fruits, nuts, berries, seeds, vegetables, and water to drink; “not Paleolithic” were legumes, cereals, sugar, salt, processed foods, and dairy products. A Paleo ratio was calculated by dividing the Paleolithic calorie intake by total calorie intake. A multiple regression model predicted the outcome at 12 weeks using the Paleo ratio, group affiliation, and outcome at baseline as predictors. The Paleo ratio increased from 28% at baseline to 94% after the intervention. A higher Paleo ratio was associated with lower fat mass, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and serum triglycerides at 12 weeks, but not with lower HbA1c levels. The Paleo ratio predicted triglyceride levels independent of weight loss (p = 0.046). Moreover, an increased monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and an increased polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio was associated with lower triglyceride levels independent of weight loss. (p = 0.017 and p = 0.019 respectively). We conclude that a higher degree of adherence to the Paleolithic diet recommendations improved fat quality and was associated with improved triglyceride levels independent of weight loss among individuals with type 2 diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Paleolithic diet; type 2 diabetes; dietary intervention; triglycerides; blood pressure; weight loss Paleolithic diet; type 2 diabetes; dietary intervention; triglycerides; blood pressure; weight loss
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mårtensson, A.; Stomby, A.; Tellström, A.; Ryberg, M.; Waling, M.; Otten, J. Using a Paleo Ratio to Assess Adherence to Paleolithic Dietary Recommendations in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients 2021, 13, 969. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030969

AMA Style

Mårtensson A, Stomby A, Tellström A, Ryberg M, Waling M, Otten J. Using a Paleo Ratio to Assess Adherence to Paleolithic Dietary Recommendations in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):969. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030969

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mårtensson, Alexander, Andreas Stomby, Anna Tellström, Mats Ryberg, Maria Waling, and Julia Otten. 2021. "Using a Paleo Ratio to Assess Adherence to Paleolithic Dietary Recommendations in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 969. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030969

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