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Review

Rehydration during Endurance Exercise: Challenges, Research, Options, Methods

Human Performance Laboratory and Korey Stringer Institute, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-1110, USA
Academic Editor: Ajmol Ali
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030887
Received: 11 February 2021 / Revised: 27 February 2021 / Accepted: 1 March 2021 / Published: 9 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Fluid Needs during Physical Activity)
During endurance exercise, two problems arise from disturbed fluid–electrolyte balance: dehydration and overhydration. The former involves water and sodium losses in sweat and urine that are incompletely replaced, whereas the latter involves excessive consumption and retention of dilute fluids. When experienced at low levels, both dehydration and overhydration have minor or no performance effects and symptoms of illness, but when experienced at moderate-to-severe levels they degrade exercise performance and/or may lead to hydration-related illnesses including hyponatremia (low serum sodium concentration). Therefore, the present review article presents (a) relevant research observations and consensus statements of professional organizations, (b) 5 rehydration methods in which pre-race planning ranges from no advanced action to determination of sweat rate during a field simulation, and (c) 9 rehydration recommendations that are relevant to endurance activities. With this information, each athlete can select the rehydration method that best allows her/him to achieve a hydration middle ground between dehydration and overhydration, to optimize physical performance, and reduce the risk of illness. View Full-Text
Keywords: thirst; drinking; sweat; sodium; hyponatremia; overhydration; dehydration; marathon; triathlon thirst; drinking; sweat; sodium; hyponatremia; overhydration; dehydration; marathon; triathlon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Armstrong, L.E. Rehydration during Endurance Exercise: Challenges, Research, Options, Methods. Nutrients 2021, 13, 887. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030887

AMA Style

Armstrong LE. Rehydration during Endurance Exercise: Challenges, Research, Options, Methods. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):887. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030887

Chicago/Turabian Style

Armstrong, Lawrence E. 2021. "Rehydration during Endurance Exercise: Challenges, Research, Options, Methods" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 887. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030887

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