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Review

Creatine Supplementation in Women’s Health: A Lifespan Perspective

1
Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27713, USA
2
Human Movement Science Curriculum, Department of Allied Health Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27713, USA
3
Department of Exercise Science and Pre-Health Professions, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
4
Aging Muscle & Bone Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology & Healthy Studies, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patrick Diel
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030877
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 1 March 2021 / Accepted: 5 March 2021 / Published: 8 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creatine Supplementation for Health and Clinical Diseases)
Despite extensive research on creatine, evidence for use among females is understudied. Creatine characteristics vary between males and females, with females exhibiting 70–80% lower endogenous creatine stores compared to males. Understanding creatine metabolism pre- and post-menopause yields important implications for creatine supplementation for performance and health among females. Due to the hormone-related changes to creatine kinetics and phosphocreatine resynthesis, supplementation may be particularly important during menses, pregnancy, post-partum, during and post-menopause. Creatine supplementation among pre-menopausal females appears to be effective for improving strength and exercise performance. Post-menopausal females may also experience benefits in skeletal muscle size and function when consuming high doses of creatine (0.3 g·kg−1·d−1); and favorable effects on bone when combined with resistance training. Pre-clinical and clinical evidence indicates positive effects from creatine supplementation on mood and cognition, possibly by restoring brain energy levels and homeostasis. Creatine supplementation may be even more effective for females by supporting a pro-energetic environment in the brain. The purpose of this review was to highlight the use of creatine in females across the lifespan with particular emphasis on performance, body composition, mood, and dosing strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: female; dietary supplement; menstrual cycle; hormones; exercise performance; menopause; pregnancy; mood; cognition female; dietary supplement; menstrual cycle; hormones; exercise performance; menopause; pregnancy; mood; cognition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Smith-Ryan, A.E.; Cabre, H.E.; Eckerson, J.M.; Candow, D.G. Creatine Supplementation in Women’s Health: A Lifespan Perspective. Nutrients 2021, 13, 877. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030877

AMA Style

Smith-Ryan AE, Cabre HE, Eckerson JM, Candow DG. Creatine Supplementation in Women’s Health: A Lifespan Perspective. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):877. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030877

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smith-Ryan, Abbie E., Hannah E. Cabre, Joan M. Eckerson, and Darren G. Candow. 2021. "Creatine Supplementation in Women’s Health: A Lifespan Perspective" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 877. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030877

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