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Article

Investigating the Relationship between Perceived Meal Colour Variety and Food Intake across Meal Types in a Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment

1
Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, P.O. Box 47, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
2
Faculty of Life Sciences: Food, Nutrition and Health, Campus Kulmbach, University of Bayreuth, 95326 Kulmbach, Germany
3
Centre for the Advanced Study of Collective Behaviour, University of Konstanz, 78464 Konstanz, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Guansheng Ma and Jose Lara
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030755
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 17 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 26 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Although most people are aware of the health benefits of consuming sufficient amounts of fruit and vegetables, many do not adhere to current dietary recommendations. Recent studies have suggested meal colour variety as an intuitive cue for healthy and enjoyable lunch meal choices. The present study extends this research by testing the “colourful = healthy” association across meal types. Using smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment, 110 participants recorded 2818 eating occasions over a period of eight days. For each eating occasion, a picture, a short written description of the meal, the meal type (breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea, dinner, snack) and the perceived meal colour variety were recorded. Foods were classified into seven food groups based on the pictures and descriptions. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. For all meal types except afternoon tea which did not include vegetables, perceived that meal colour variety was positively related to vegetable consumption (bs ≥ 0.001, ts ≥ 3.27, ps ≤ 0.002, quasi-R2s ≥ 0.06). Moreover, perceived meal colour variety was negatively associated with sweets consumption for breakfast, dinner and snacks (bs ≤ −0.001, ts ≤ −2.82, ps ≤ 0.006, quasi-R2s ≥ 0.01). The “colourful = healthy” association can be generalized across meal types and thus may be a promising strategy to promote a healthier diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: eating behaviour; food colours; vegetables; snacks; ecological momentary assessment eating behaviour; food colours; vegetables; snacks; ecological momentary assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

König, L.M.; Koller, J.E.; Villinger, K.; Wahl, D.R.; Ziesemer, K.; Schupp, H.T.; Renner, B. Investigating the Relationship between Perceived Meal Colour Variety and Food Intake across Meal Types in a Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment. Nutrients 2021, 13, 755. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030755

AMA Style

König LM, Koller JE, Villinger K, Wahl DR, Ziesemer K, Schupp HT, Renner B. Investigating the Relationship between Perceived Meal Colour Variety and Food Intake across Meal Types in a Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):755. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030755

Chicago/Turabian Style

König, Laura M., Julia E. Koller, Karoline Villinger, Deborah R. Wahl, Katrin Ziesemer, Harald T. Schupp, and Britta Renner. 2021. "Investigating the Relationship between Perceived Meal Colour Variety and Food Intake across Meal Types in a Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 755. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030755

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