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Review

Current Evidence and Possible Future Applications of Creatine Supplementation for Older Adults

1
Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4SOA2, Canada
2
Department of Physical Education Studies, Faculty of Education, Brandon University, Brandon, MB R7A6A9, Canada
3
Department of Medicine-Western Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3021, Australia
4
Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), The University of Melbourne and Western Health, St. Albans, VIC 3201, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David C. Nieman
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030745
Received: 6 January 2021 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 20 February 2021 / Published: 26 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creatine Supplementation for Health and Clinical Diseases)
Sarcopenia, defined as age-related reduction in muscle mass, strength, and physical performance, is associated with other age-related health conditions such as osteoporosis, osteosarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, physical frailty, and cachexia. From a healthy aging perspective, lifestyle interventions that may help overcome characteristics and associated comorbidities of sarcopenia are clinically important. One possible intervention is creatine supplementation (CR). Accumulating research over the past few decades shows that CR, primarily when combined with resistance training (RT), has favourable effects on aging muscle, bone and fat mass, muscle and bone strength, and tasks of physical performance in healthy older adults. However, research is very limited regarding the efficacy of CR in older adults with sarcopenia or osteoporosis and no research exists in older adults with osteosarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, physical frailty, or cachexia. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review is (1) to evaluate and summarize current research involving CR, with and without RT, on properties of muscle and bone in older adults and (2) to provide a rationale and justification for future research involving CR in older adults with osteosarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, physical frailty, or cachexia. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; osteoporosis; osteosarcopenia; frailty; cachexia sarcopenia; osteoporosis; osteosarcopenia; frailty; cachexia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Candow, D.G.; Forbes, S.C.; Kirk, B.; Duque, G. Current Evidence and Possible Future Applications of Creatine Supplementation for Older Adults. Nutrients 2021, 13, 745. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030745

AMA Style

Candow DG, Forbes SC, Kirk B, Duque G. Current Evidence and Possible Future Applications of Creatine Supplementation for Older Adults. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):745. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030745

Chicago/Turabian Style

Candow, Darren G., Scott C. Forbes, Ben Kirk, and Gustavo Duque. 2021. "Current Evidence and Possible Future Applications of Creatine Supplementation for Older Adults" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 745. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030745

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