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Article

Acute Effects of Cheddar Cheese Consumption on Circulating Amino Acids and Human Skeletal Muscle

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Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology, University of Utah, 250 S 1850 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
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Department of Physical Therapy and Athletic Training, University of Utah, 520 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA
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Department of Kinesiology, Nutrition and Health, Miami University, 420 S Oak St., Oxford, OH 45056, USA
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Geoge E. Wahlen Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, 500 Foothill Dr., Salt Lake City, UT 84148, USA
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Cell Imaging Facility, University of Utah, 30 N 2030 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
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Department of Human Genetics, 15 N 2030 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
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Dairy West Innovation Partnerships, 195 River Vista Place #306, Twin Falls, ID 83301, USA
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Glanbia Nutritionals Research, 450 Falls Avenue #255, Twin Falls, ID 83301, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first authors.
Academic Editor: Dennis Savaiano
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020614
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 3 February 2021 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 13 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products for Human Health)
Cheddar cheese is a protein-dense whole food and high in leucine content. However, no information is known about the acute blood amino acid kinetics and protein anabolic effects in skeletal muscle in healthy adults. Therefore, we conducted a crossover study in which men and women (n = 24; ~27 years, ~23 kg/m2) consumed cheese (20 g protein) or an isonitrogenous amount of milk. Blood and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken before and during the post absorptive period following ingestion. We evaluated circulating essential and non-essential amino acids, insulin, and free fatty acids and examined skeletal muscle anabolism by mTORC1 cellular localization, intracellular signaling, and ribosomal profiling. We found that cheese ingestion had a slower yet more sustained branched-chain amino acid circulation appearance over the postprandial period peaking at ~120 min. Cheese also modestly stimulated mTORC1 signaling and increased membrane localization. Using ribosomal profiling we found that, though both milk and cheese stimulated a muscle anabolic program associated with mTORC1 signaling that was more evident with milk, mTORC1 signaling persisted with cheese while also inducing a lower insulinogenic response. We conclude that Cheddar cheese induced a sustained blood amino acid and moderate muscle mTORC1 response yet had a lower glycemic profile compared to milk. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy; ribo-seq; muscle protein synthesis; anabolism; insulin dairy; ribo-seq; muscle protein synthesis; anabolism; insulin
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Hart, N.M.M.P.; Mahmassani, Z.S.; Reidy, P.T.; Kelley, J.J.; McKenzie, A.I.; Petrocelli, J.J.; Bridge, M.J.; Baird, L.M.; Bastian, E.D.; Ward, L.S.; Howard, M.T.; Drummond, M.J. Acute Effects of Cheddar Cheese Consumption on Circulating Amino Acids and Human Skeletal Muscle. Nutrients 2021, 13, 614. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020614

AMA Style

de Hart NMMP, Mahmassani ZS, Reidy PT, Kelley JJ, McKenzie AI, Petrocelli JJ, Bridge MJ, Baird LM, Bastian ED, Ward LS, Howard MT, Drummond MJ. Acute Effects of Cheddar Cheese Consumption on Circulating Amino Acids and Human Skeletal Muscle. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):614. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020614

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Hart, Naomi M.M.P., Ziad S. Mahmassani, Paul T. Reidy, Joshua J. Kelley, Alec I. McKenzie, Jonathan J. Petrocelli, Michael J. Bridge, Lisa M. Baird, Eric D. Bastian, Loren S. Ward, Michael T. Howard, and Micah J. Drummond 2021. "Acute Effects of Cheddar Cheese Consumption on Circulating Amino Acids and Human Skeletal Muscle" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 614. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020614

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