Next Article in Journal
Quercetin Alleviates Oxidative Damage by Activating Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Signaling in Porcine Enterocytes
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Combining a Ketogenic Diet with Resistance Training on Body Composition, Strength, and Mechanical Power in Trained Individuals: A Narrative Review
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Different Vitamin D Supplementation Schemes in Post-Menopausal Women: A Monocentric Open-Label Randomized Study
Article

Effects of Two Months of Very Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Muscle Strength, Muscle Area, and Blood Parameters in Competitive Natural Body Builders

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, 35131 Padua, Italy
2
Research Center for High Performance Sport, UCAM, Catholic University of Murcia, 30107 Murcia, Spain
3
Brain, Mind and Computer Science Doctoral Program, University of Padua, 35131 Padua, Italy
4
Unit of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
5
Faculty of Sport Science, Ankara University, 06830 Ankara, Turkey
6
Department of Psychology, Educational Science and Human Movement, Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italy
7
Department of Human Sciences and Promotion of the Quality of Life, San Raffaele Roma Open University, 00166 Rome, Italy
8
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00163 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fernando Naclerio
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020374
Received: 24 December 2020 / Revised: 21 January 2021 / Accepted: 22 January 2021 / Published: 26 January 2021
Background: Ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach that restricts daily carbohydrates, replacing most of the reduced energy with fat, while maintaining an adequate quantity of protein. Despite the widespread use of KD in weight loss in athletes, there are still many concerns about its use in sports requiring muscle mass accrual. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the influence of a KD in competitive natural body builders. Methods: Nineteen volunteers (27.4 ± 10.5 years) were randomly assigned to ketogenic diet (KD) or to a western diet (WD). Body composition, muscle strength and basal metabolic rate were measured before and after two months of intervention. Standard blood biochemistry, testosterone, IGF-1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory cytokines (IL6, IL1β, TNFα) were also measured. Results: Body fat significantly decreased in KD (p = 0.030); whilst lean mass increased significantly only in WD (p < 0.001). Maximal strength increased similarly in both groups. KD showed a significant decrease of blood triglycerides (p < 0.001), glucose (p = 0.001), insulin (p < 0.001) and inflammatory cytokines compared to WD whilst BDNF increased in both groups with significant greater changes in KD (p < 0.001). Conclusions: KD may be used during body building preparation for health and leaning purposes but with the caution that hypertrophic muscle response could be blunted. View Full-Text
Keywords: ketogenic diet; strength; resistance training; health ketogenic diet; strength; resistance training; health
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Paoli, A.; Cenci, L.; Pompei, P.; Sahin, N.; Bianco, A.; Neri, M.; Caprio, M.; Moro, T. Effects of Two Months of Very Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Muscle Strength, Muscle Area, and Blood Parameters in Competitive Natural Body Builders. Nutrients 2021, 13, 374. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020374

AMA Style

Paoli A, Cenci L, Pompei P, Sahin N, Bianco A, Neri M, Caprio M, Moro T. Effects of Two Months of Very Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Muscle Strength, Muscle Area, and Blood Parameters in Competitive Natural Body Builders. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):374. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020374

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paoli, Antonio, Lorenzo Cenci, PierLuigi Pompei, Nese Sahin, Antonino Bianco, Marco Neri, Massimiliano Caprio, and Tatiana Moro. 2021. "Effects of Two Months of Very Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Muscle Strength, Muscle Area, and Blood Parameters in Competitive Natural Body Builders" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 374. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020374

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop