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Related Factors and Clinical Outcomes of Osteosarcopenia: A Narrative Review

Department of Physical Therapy, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, 1398 Shimami-cho, Kita-ku, Niigata 950-3198, Japan
Department of Geriatric Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 7-430 Morioka, Obu, Aichi 474-8511, Japan
Department of Palliative and Supportive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi Medical University, 1-1 Yazakokarimata, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan
Department of Nursing, Nishinomiya Kyoritsu Neurosurgical Hospital, 11-1 Imazuyamanaka-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8211, Japan
Department of Nutrition, Hamamatsu City Rehabilitation Hospital, 1-6-1 Wago-kita, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 433-8127, Japan
Department of Clinical Nutrition and Food Service, NTT Medical Center Tokyo, 5-9-22 Higashi-Gotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8625, Japan
Biostatistics Center, Kurume University, 67 Asahimachi, Kurume 830-0011, Japan
Okinawa Chuzan Hospital Clinical Research Center, Chuzan Hospital, 6-2-1 Matsumoto, Okinawa 904-2151, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 291;
Received: 26 November 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 20 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Malnutrition upon Healthcare and Clinical Outcomes)
Osteopenia/osteoporosis and sarcopenia are common geriatric diseases among older adults and harm activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QOL). Osteosarcopenia is a unique syndrome that is a concomitant of both osteopenia/osteoporosis and sarcopenia. This review aimed to summarize the related factors and clinical outcomes of osteosarcopenia to facilitate understanding, evaluation, prevention, treatment, and further research on osteosarcopenia. We searched the literature to include meta-analyses, reviews, and clinical trials. The prevalence of osteosarcopenia among community-dwelling older adults is significantly higher in female (up to 64.3%) compared to male (8–11%). Osteosarcopenia is a risk factor for death, fractures, and falls based on longitudinal studies. However, the associations between osteosarcopenia and many other factors have been derived based on cross-sectional studies, so the causal relationship is not clear. Few studies of osteosarcopenia in hospitals have been conducted. Osteosarcopenia is a new concept and has not yet been fully researched its relationship to clinical outcomes. Longitudinal studies and high-quality interventional studies are warranted in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; osteoporosis; osteosarcopenia sarcopenia; osteoporosis; osteosarcopenia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Inoue, T.; Maeda, K.; Nagano, A.; Shimizu, A.; Ueshima, J.; Murotani, K.; Sato, K.; Hotta, K.; Morishita, S.; Tsubaki, A. Related Factors and Clinical Outcomes of Osteosarcopenia: A Narrative Review. Nutrients 2021, 13, 291.

AMA Style

Inoue T, Maeda K, Nagano A, Shimizu A, Ueshima J, Murotani K, Sato K, Hotta K, Morishita S, Tsubaki A. Related Factors and Clinical Outcomes of Osteosarcopenia: A Narrative Review. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):291.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Inoue, Tatsuro; Maeda, Keisuke; Nagano, Ayano; Shimizu, Akio; Ueshima, Junko; Murotani, Kenta; Sato, Keisuke; Hotta, Kazuki; Morishita, Shinichiro; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro. 2021. "Related Factors and Clinical Outcomes of Osteosarcopenia: A Narrative Review" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 291.

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