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Daily Vinegar Ingestion Improves Depression Scores and Alters the Metabolome in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
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Academic Editor: Patrizia Mecocci
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4020; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114020
Received: 8 October 2021 / Revised: 5 November 2021 / Accepted: 9 November 2021 / Published: 11 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Daily vinegar ingestion has been linked to improved glycemic control, but recent data suggest a separate unexplored role for vinegar in mental health. Utilizing a placebo-controlled, parallel arm study design, this 4-week trial examined the impact of daily vinegar ingestion on mood states and urinary metabolites in healthy college students. Participants were randomized to the vinegar group (VIN: n = 14; 1.5 g acetic acid/day as liquid vinegar) or the control group (CON: n = 11; 0.015 g acetic acid/day as a pill) with no change to customary diet or physical activity. At baseline and at study week four, participants completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) questionnaires and provided a first-morning urine sample for targeted metabolomics analyses. The change in both POMS depression scores and CES-D scores differed significantly between groups favoring improved affect in the VIN versus CON participants after four weeks. Metabolomics analyses pre and post-intervention suggested metabolite alterations associated with vinegar ingestion that are consistent for improved mood, including enzymatic dysfunction in the hexosamine pathway as well as significant increases in glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism. These data warrant continued investigation of vinegar as a possible agent to improve mood state. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; metabolomics; vinegar depression; metabolomics; vinegar
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MDPI and ACS Style

Johnston, C.S.; Jasbi, P.; Jin, Y.; Bauer, S.; Williams, S.; Fessler, S.N.; Gu, H. Daily Vinegar Ingestion Improves Depression Scores and Alters the Metabolome in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4020. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114020

AMA Style

Johnston CS, Jasbi P, Jin Y, Bauer S, Williams S, Fessler SN, Gu H. Daily Vinegar Ingestion Improves Depression Scores and Alters the Metabolome in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):4020. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114020

Chicago/Turabian Style

Johnston, Carol S., Paniz Jasbi, Yan Jin, Shayna Bauer, Susanna Williams, Samantha N. Fessler, and Haiwei Gu. 2021. "Daily Vinegar Ingestion Improves Depression Scores and Alters the Metabolome in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 4020. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114020

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