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Iron Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases—A Narrative Review

Department of Gastroenterology, Dietetics and Internal Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Przybyszewskiego Street 49, 60-355 Poznan, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Elad Tako
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4008;
Received: 3 October 2021 / Revised: 4 November 2021 / Accepted: 5 November 2021 / Published: 10 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. IBD has been associated with numerous symptoms and complications, with the most common being iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Iron deficiency in IBD is caused by inadequate intake, malabsorption (including duodenal involvement and surgical removal), and chronic blood loss by mucosal ulcerations. Therefore, an appropriate diet should be enforced. Iron deficiency and iron supplementation have been associated with alterations to gut microbiota. IBD-associated anemia, in particular iron deficiency anemia, is associated with a significant decrease in quality of life and with clinical symptoms such as chronic fatigue, headaches and dizziness, reduced exercise tolerance, pale skin, nails, conjunctiva, and fainting. However, despite these numerous adverse symptoms, IDA remains undertreated. The European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) guidelines state that patients should be monitored for anemia. Adequate treatment, whether oral or intravenous, should be implemented while taking into consideration C-reactive protein values (CRP), hemoglobin levels, and therapeutic response. It should be stressed that every case of anemia in IBD patients should be treated. Intravenous iron formulations, which are more superior compared to the oral form, should be used. There is a need to increase awareness and implementation of international guidelines on iron supplementation in patients with IBD. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron deficiency; IBD; dysbiosis; dietary factors; iron metabolism; microbiota; IDA iron deficiency; IBD; dysbiosis; dietary factors; iron metabolism; microbiota; IDA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mahadea, D.; Adamczewska, E.; Ratajczak, A.E.; Rychter, A.M.; Zawada, A.; Eder, P.; Dobrowolska, A.; Krela-Kaźmierczak, I. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases—A Narrative Review. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4008.

AMA Style

Mahadea D, Adamczewska E, Ratajczak AE, Rychter AM, Zawada A, Eder P, Dobrowolska A, Krela-Kaźmierczak I. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases—A Narrative Review. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):4008.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mahadea, Dagmara, Ewelina Adamczewska, Alicja E. Ratajczak, Anna M. Rychter, Agnieszka Zawada, Piotr Eder, Agnieszka Dobrowolska, and Iwona Krela-Kaźmierczak. 2021. "Iron Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases—A Narrative Review" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 4008.

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