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Article

Protective Effects of Individual and Combined Low Dose Beta-Carotene and Metformin Treatments against High-Fat Diet-Induced Responses in Mice

by 1,†, 1,†, 1, 1,2,3, 1,2,3,*,‡ and 1,2,3,‡
1
Grupo de Nutrigenómica, Biomarcadores y Evaluación de Riesgos, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Nutrition and Biotechnology (LBNB), Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma, Spain
2
Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Illes Balears (IdISBa), 07120 Palma, Spain
3
CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), 07122 Palma, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Maria Luz Fernandez and Jose Atilio Canas
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3607; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103607
Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 24 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
Anti-obesity activity has been reported for beta-carotene (BC) supplementation at high doses and metformin (MET). We studied whether BC treatment at a closer to dietary dose and MET treatment at a lower than therapeutic dose are effective in ameliorating unwanted effects of an obesogenic diet and whether their combination is advantageous. Obesity-prone mice were challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% energy as fat) for 4 weeks while receiving a placebo or being treated orally with BC (3 mg/kg/day), MET (100 mg/kg/day), or their combination (BC+MET); a fifth group received a placebo and was kept on a normal-fat diet (10% energy as fat). HFD-induced increases in body weight gain and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT) adipocyte size were attenuated maximally or selectively in the BC+MET group, in which a redistribution towards smaller adipocytes was noted. Cumulative energy intake was unaffected, yet results suggested increased systemic energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue activation in the treated groups. Unwanted effects of HFD on glucose control and insulin sensitivity were attenuated in the treated groups, especially BC and BC+MET, in which hepatic lipid content was also decreased. Transcriptional analyses suggested effects on skeletal muscle and WAT metabolism could contribute to better responses to the HFD, especially in the MET and BC+MET groups. The results support the benefits of the BC+MET cotreatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytochemical; carotenoids; cotherapy; obesity phytochemical; carotenoids; cotherapy; obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stojnić, B.; Serrano, A.; Sušak, L.; Palou, A.; Bonet, M.L.; Ribot, J. Protective Effects of Individual and Combined Low Dose Beta-Carotene and Metformin Treatments against High-Fat Diet-Induced Responses in Mice. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3607. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103607

AMA Style

Stojnić B, Serrano A, Sušak L, Palou A, Bonet ML, Ribot J. Protective Effects of Individual and Combined Low Dose Beta-Carotene and Metformin Treatments against High-Fat Diet-Induced Responses in Mice. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3607. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103607

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stojnić, Bojan, Alba Serrano, Lana Sušak, Andreu Palou, M. L. Bonet, and Joan Ribot. 2021. "Protective Effects of Individual and Combined Low Dose Beta-Carotene and Metformin Treatments against High-Fat Diet-Induced Responses in Mice" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3607. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103607

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