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Vitamin D Intake in Slovenian Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly Population

Nutrition Institute, Tržaška Cesta 40, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Computer Systems Department, Jozef Stefan Institute, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
National Institute of Public Health, Trubarjeva 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
VIST–Higher School of Applied Sciences, Gerbičeva cesta 51A, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edgard Delvin
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3528;
Received: 10 September 2021 / Revised: 29 September 2021 / Accepted: 5 October 2021 / Published: 8 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue European Dietary Surveys: What's on the Menu?)
Vitamin D is involved in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and is vital for numerous bodily functions. In the absence of sufficient UV-B light-induced skin biosynthesis, dietary intake becomes the most important source of vitamin D. In the absence of biosynthesis, the recommended dietary vitamin D intake is 10–20 µg/day. Major contributors to dietary vitamin D intake are the few foods naturally containing vitamin D (i.e., fish), enriched foods, and supplements. The present study aimed to estimate the vitamin D intake in Slovenia, to identify food groups that notably contribute to vitamin D intake, and to predict the effects of hypothetical mandatory milk fortification. This study was conducted using data collected by the national cross-sectional food consumption survey (SI.Menu) in adolescents (n = 468; 10–17 years), adults (n = 364; 18–64 years), and the elderly (n = 416; 65–74 years). Data collection was carried out between March 2017 and April 2018 using the EU Menu Methodology, which included two 24-h recalls, and a food propensity questionnaire. Very low vitamin D intakes were found; many did not even meet the threshold for very low vitamin D intake (2.5 µg/day). Mean daily vitamin D intake was 2.7, 2.9, and 2.5 µg in adolescents, adults, and the elderly, respectively. Daily energy intake was found to be a significant predictor of vitamin D intake in all population groups. In adolescents and adults, sex was also found to be a significant predictor, with higher vitamin D intake in males. The study results explained the previously reported high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovenia. An efficient policy approach is required to address the risk of vitamin D deficiency, particularly in vulnerable populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; Slovenia; dietary intake; EU Menu; food propensity questionnaire; 24 h recall vitamin D; Slovenia; dietary intake; EU Menu; food propensity questionnaire; 24 h recall
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hribar, M.; Hristov, H.; Lavriša, Ž.; Koroušić Seljak, B.; Gregorič, M.; Blaznik, U.; Žmitek, K.; Pravst, I. Vitamin D Intake in Slovenian Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly Population. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3528.

AMA Style

Hribar M, Hristov H, Lavriša Ž, Koroušić Seljak B, Gregorič M, Blaznik U, Žmitek K, Pravst I. Vitamin D Intake in Slovenian Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly Population. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3528.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hribar, Maša, Hristo Hristov, Živa Lavriša, Barbara Koroušić Seljak, Matej Gregorič, Urška Blaznik, Katja Žmitek, and Igor Pravst. 2021. "Vitamin D Intake in Slovenian Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly Population" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3528.

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