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Article

Vitamin D Intake in Slovenian Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly Population

1
Nutrition Institute, Tržaška Cesta 40, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Computer Systems Department, Jozef Stefan Institute, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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National Institute of Public Health, Trubarjeva 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
5
VIST–Higher School of Applied Sciences, Gerbičeva cesta 51A, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edgard Delvin
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103528
Received: 10 September 2021 / Revised: 29 September 2021 / Accepted: 5 October 2021 / Published: 8 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue European Dietary Surveys: What's on the Menu?)
Vitamin D is involved in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and is vital for numerous bodily functions. In the absence of sufficient UV-B light-induced skin biosynthesis, dietary intake becomes the most important source of vitamin D. In the absence of biosynthesis, the recommended dietary vitamin D intake is 10–20 µg/day. Major contributors to dietary vitamin D intake are the few foods naturally containing vitamin D (i.e., fish), enriched foods, and supplements. The present study aimed to estimate the vitamin D intake in Slovenia, to identify food groups that notably contribute to vitamin D intake, and to predict the effects of hypothetical mandatory milk fortification. This study was conducted using data collected by the national cross-sectional food consumption survey (SI.Menu) in adolescents (n = 468; 10–17 years), adults (n = 364; 18–64 years), and the elderly (n = 416; 65–74 years). Data collection was carried out between March 2017 and April 2018 using the EU Menu Methodology, which included two 24-h recalls, and a food propensity questionnaire. Very low vitamin D intakes were found; many did not even meet the threshold for very low vitamin D intake (2.5 µg/day). Mean daily vitamin D intake was 2.7, 2.9, and 2.5 µg in adolescents, adults, and the elderly, respectively. Daily energy intake was found to be a significant predictor of vitamin D intake in all population groups. In adolescents and adults, sex was also found to be a significant predictor, with higher vitamin D intake in males. The study results explained the previously reported high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovenia. An efficient policy approach is required to address the risk of vitamin D deficiency, particularly in vulnerable populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; Slovenia; dietary intake; EU Menu; food propensity questionnaire; 24 h recall vitamin D; Slovenia; dietary intake; EU Menu; food propensity questionnaire; 24 h recall
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hribar, M.; Hristov, H.; Lavriša, Ž.; Koroušić Seljak, B.; Gregorič, M.; Blaznik, U.; Žmitek, K.; Pravst, I. Vitamin D Intake in Slovenian Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly Population. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3528. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103528

AMA Style

Hribar M, Hristov H, Lavriša Ž, Koroušić Seljak B, Gregorič M, Blaznik U, Žmitek K, Pravst I. Vitamin D Intake in Slovenian Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly Population. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3528. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103528

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hribar, Maša, Hristo Hristov, Živa Lavriša, Barbara Koroušić Seljak, Matej Gregorič, Urška Blaznik, Katja Žmitek, and Igor Pravst. 2021. "Vitamin D Intake in Slovenian Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly Population" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3528. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103528

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