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Review

Which Diets Are Effective in Reducing Cardiovascular and Cancer Risk in Women with Obesity? An Integrative Review

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Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia 74690-900, Brazil
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Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, Institute of Epidemiology & Health Care, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
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Department of Health and Student Assistance, Instituto Federal Goiano–Campus Ceres, Ceres 76300-0000, Brazil
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Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
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Superintendence of Health Surveillance, Department of Goiás State, Goiania 74093-250, Brazil
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School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giorgos K. Sakkas
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3504; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103504
Received: 13 September 2021 / Revised: 24 September 2021 / Accepted: 28 September 2021 / Published: 4 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
Women are more affected by obesity than men which increases their risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, it is important to understand the effectiveness of different types of diet in the context of women’s health. This review aims to summarize the scientific evidence on the effects of different types of diet for women with obesity and their impact on CVD and cancer risk. This review included epidemiological and clinical studies on adult women and different types of diets, such as the Mediterranean (MED) diet, the Traditional Brazilian Diet, the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), intermittent fasting (IF), calorie (energy) restriction, food re-education, low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a very low-carbohydrate diet (VLCD). Our main findings showed that although LCDs, VLCD and IF are difficult to adhere to over an extended period, they can be good options for achieving improvements in body weight and cardiometabolic parameters. MED, DASH and the Traditional Brazilian Diet are based on natural foods and reduced processed foods. These diets have been associated with better women’s health outcomes, including lower risk of CVD and cancer and the prevention and treatment of obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; cardiovascular and cancer risk; plant-based diet; low-carb diet; intermittent fasting; Mediterranean diet obesity; cardiovascular and cancer risk; plant-based diet; low-carb diet; intermittent fasting; Mediterranean diet
MDPI and ACS Style

Silveira, E.A.; Noll, P.R.E.S.; Mohammadifard, N.; Rodrigues, A.P.S.; Sarrafzadegan, N.; de Oliveira, C. Which Diets Are Effective in Reducing Cardiovascular and Cancer Risk in Women with Obesity? An Integrative Review. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3504. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103504

AMA Style

Silveira EA, Noll PRES, Mohammadifard N, Rodrigues APS, Sarrafzadegan N, de Oliveira C. Which Diets Are Effective in Reducing Cardiovascular and Cancer Risk in Women with Obesity? An Integrative Review. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3504. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103504

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silveira, Erika A., Priscilla R.E.S. Noll, Noushin Mohammadifard, Ana P.S. Rodrigues, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, and Cesar de Oliveira. 2021. "Which Diets Are Effective in Reducing Cardiovascular and Cancer Risk in Women with Obesity? An Integrative Review" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3504. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103504

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