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Article

Epigenome-Wide Association of Infant Feeding and Changes in DNA Methylation from Birth to 10 Years

1
Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Memphis, Robison Hall, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
2
Department of Mathematical Science, University of Memphis, Dunn Hall, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
3
College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
4
NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
5
Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
6
The David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre, St Mary’s Hospital, Isle of Wight PO30 5TG, UK
7
Human Development and Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010099
Received: 21 November 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 28 December 2020 / Published: 30 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Breastfeeding and Human Milk Research)
Epigenetic factors have been suggested as mediators of early-life nutrition to future health. Prior studies focused on breastfeeding effects on DNA methylation (DNAm), ignoring other feeding modes. In this analysis of the Isle of Wight birth cohort, feeding modes were categorized as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), exclusive formula feeding (EFF), and mixed feeding based on whether the respective feeding mode lasted for at least 3 months. In addition, in the past, infant feeding modes were assessed using DNAm at one time point in childhood, not changes of DNAm. In this paper, methylation differences (delta DNAm) were calculated by subtracting residual methylation values at birth from age 10 years (adjusting for cell types and season of blood collection at both ages). These deltas were estimated for all methylation sites where cytosine was followed by guanine (cytosine guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites). Then, we performed an epigenome-wide association study contrasting EBF, EFF, and mixed feeding with delta DNAm that represents changes in methylation from birth to 10 years. A total of 87 CpGs (EBF: 27 CpGs, EFF: 48 CpGs, mixed: 12 CpGs) were identified using separate linear regression models adjusting for confounders and multiple testing. The sum of all changes in methylation from birth to age 10 years was significantly lower in the EFF group. Correspondingly, the number of CpGs with a methylation decline was 4.7% higher reflecting 13,683 CpGs. Lower methylation related to exclusive formula feeding and its adverse potential for the child’s development needs future research to reduce adverse health effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenome-wide association study; EWAS; epigenetics; DNA methylation; infant feeding; feeding mode; breastfeeding; formula feeding; mixed feeding; delta residuals epigenome-wide association study; EWAS; epigenetics; DNA methylation; infant feeding; feeding mode; breastfeeding; formula feeding; mixed feeding; delta residuals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mallisetty, Y.; Mukherjee, N.; Jiang, Y.; Chen, S.; Ewart, S.; Arshad, S.H.; Holloway, J.W.; Zhang, H.; Karmaus, W. Epigenome-Wide Association of Infant Feeding and Changes in DNA Methylation from Birth to 10 Years. Nutrients 2021, 13, 99. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010099

AMA Style

Mallisetty Y, Mukherjee N, Jiang Y, Chen S, Ewart S, Arshad SH, Holloway JW, Zhang H, Karmaus W. Epigenome-Wide Association of Infant Feeding and Changes in DNA Methylation from Birth to 10 Years. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):99. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010099

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mallisetty, Yamini, Nandini Mukherjee, Yu Jiang, Su Chen, Susan Ewart, S. H. Arshad, John W. Holloway, Hongmei Zhang, and Wilfried Karmaus. 2021. "Epigenome-Wide Association of Infant Feeding and Changes in DNA Methylation from Birth to 10 Years" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 99. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010099

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