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Review

The Association between Vitamin D Status and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

by 1,2, 1,2 and 1,2,*
1
Department of Biomedical Informatics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
2
Autism Research Center, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010086
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 25 December 2020 / Published: 29 December 2020
The association between vitamin D status and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is well-investigated but remains to be elucidated. We quantitatively combined relevant studies to estimate whether vitamin D status was related to ASD in this work. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to include eligible studies. A random-effects model was applied to pool overall estimates of vitamin D concentration or odds ratio (OR) for ASD. In total, 34 publications involving 20,580 participants were identified in this present study. Meta-analysis of 24 case–control studies demonstrated that children and adolescents with ASD had significantly lower vitamin D concentration than that of the control group (mean difference (MD): −7.46 ng/mL, 95% confidence interval (CI): −10.26; −4.66 ng/mL, p < 0.0001, I2 = 98%). Quantitative integration of 10 case–control studies reporting OR revealed that lower vitamin D was associated with higher risk of ASD (OR: 5.23, 95% CI: 3.13; 8.73, p < 0.0001, I2 = 78.2%). Analysis of 15 case–control studies barring data from previous meta-analysis reached a similar result with that of the meta-analysis of 24 case–control studies (MD: −6.2, 95% CI: −9.62; −2.78, p = 0.0004, I2 = 96.8%), which confirmed the association. Furthermore, meta-analysis of maternal and neonatal vitamin D showed a trend of decreased early-life vitamin D concentration in the ASD group (MD: −3.15, 95% CI: −6.57; 0.26, p = 0.07, I2 = 99%). Meta-analysis of prospective studies suggested that children with reduced maternal or neonatal vitamin D had 54% higher likelihood of developing ASD (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.12; 2.10, p = 0.0071, I2 = 81.2%). These analyses indicated that vitamin D status was related to the risk of ASD. The detection and appropriate intervention of vitamin D deficiency in ASD patients and pregnant and lactating women have clinical and public significance. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; vitamin D; maternal and neonatal vitamin D; systematic review; meta-analysis autism spectrum disorder; vitamin D; maternal and neonatal vitamin D; systematic review; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Z.; Ding, R.; Wang, J. The Association between Vitamin D Status and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2021, 13, 86. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010086

AMA Style

Wang Z, Ding R, Wang J. The Association between Vitamin D Status and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):86. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010086

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Zuqun, Rui Ding, and Juan Wang. 2021. "The Association between Vitamin D Status and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 86. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010086

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