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Article

Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Iodide Intake from Diet and Supplements, Urinary Iodine and Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in a Region of the United Kingdom with Mild-to-Moderate Iodine Deficiency

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Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Bradford BD9 6RJ, UK
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Leeds Institute for Data Analytics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Nutritional Epidemiology Group, School of Food Science & Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Earth Surface Science Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
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NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
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Laboratory for Human Nutrition, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
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Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Division of Women’s and Children’s Health, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010230
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 8 January 2021 / Accepted: 12 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Iodine is essential for normal thyroid function, supporting healthy fetal and child development. Iodine requirements increase in pregnancy, but many women in regions without salt iodization have insufficient intakes. We explored associations between iodide intake and urinary iodine concentration (UIC), urinary iodine/creatinine ratio (I/Cr), thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and palpable goiter in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine insufficiency. A total of 246 pregnant women aged 18–40 in Bradford, UK, joined the Health and Iodine in Babies (Hiba) study. They provided detailed information on diet and supplement use, urine and serum samples and were assessed for goiter at around 12, 26 and 36 weeks’ gestation, and 6, 18 and 30 weeks postpartum. Dietary iodide intake from food and drink was estimated using six 24 h recalls. During pregnancy, median (IQR) dietary iodide intake was 101 µg/day (54, 142), with 42% from dairy and 9% from white fish. Including supplements, intake was 143 µg/day (94, 196), with 49% < UK reference nutrient intake (140 µg/day). Women with Pakistani heritage had 129 µg/day (87, 190) median total intake. Total intake during pregnancy was associated with 4% (95% CI: 1%, 7%) higher UIC, 5% (3%, 7%) higher I/Cr, 4% (2%, 6%) lower thyroglobulin and 21% (9%, 32%) lower odds of palpable goiter per 50 µg/day. This cohort consumed less iodide in pregnancy than UK and World Health Organization dietary recommendations. UIC, I/Cr and thyroglobulin were associated with intake. Higher intake was associated with fewer goiters. Because dairy was the dominant source of iodide, women following plant-based or low-dairy diets may be at particular risk of iodine insufficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine; pregnancy; diet; thyroid; cohort iodine; pregnancy; diet; thyroid; cohort
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MDPI and ACS Style

Threapleton, D.E.; Waiblinger, D.; Snart, C.J.P.; Taylor, E.; Keeble, C.; Ashraf, S.; Bi, S.; Ajjan, R.; Azad, R.; Hancock, N.; Mason, D.; Reid, S.; Cromie, K.J.; Alwan, N.A.; Zimmermann, M.; Stewart, P.M.; Simpson, N.A.B.; Wright, J.; Cade, J.E.; Hardie, L.J.; Greenwood, D.C. Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Iodide Intake from Diet and Supplements, Urinary Iodine and Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in a Region of the United Kingdom with Mild-to-Moderate Iodine Deficiency. Nutrients 2021, 13, 230. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010230

AMA Style

Threapleton DE, Waiblinger D, Snart CJP, Taylor E, Keeble C, Ashraf S, Bi S, Ajjan R, Azad R, Hancock N, Mason D, Reid S, Cromie KJ, Alwan NA, Zimmermann M, Stewart PM, Simpson NAB, Wright J, Cade JE, Hardie LJ, Greenwood DC. Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Iodide Intake from Diet and Supplements, Urinary Iodine and Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in a Region of the United Kingdom with Mild-to-Moderate Iodine Deficiency. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):230. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010230

Chicago/Turabian Style

Threapleton, Diane E., Dagmar Waiblinger, Charles J.P. Snart, Elizabeth Taylor, Claire Keeble, Samina Ashraf, Shazia Bi, Ramzi Ajjan, Rafaq Azad, Neil Hancock, Dan Mason, Stephen Reid, Kirsten J. Cromie, Nisreen A. Alwan, Michael Zimmermann, Paul M. Stewart, Nigel A.B. Simpson, John Wright, Janet E. Cade, Laura J. Hardie, and Darren C. Greenwood. 2021. "Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Iodide Intake from Diet and Supplements, Urinary Iodine and Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in a Region of the United Kingdom with Mild-to-Moderate Iodine Deficiency" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 230. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010230

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