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DGLA from the Microalga Lobosphaera Incsa P127 Modulates Inflammatory Response, Inhibits iNOS Expression and Alleviates NO Secretion in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages

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Microalgal Biotechnology Laboratory, The French Associates Institute for Agriculture and Biotechnology for Drylands, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion 8499000, Israel
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The Albert Katz International School for Desert Studies, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion 8499000, Israel
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The Skin Research Institute, The Dead-Sea and Arava Science Centre, Masada 86910, Israel
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Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 8400501, Israel
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Department of Oncology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva 8400501, Israel
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Eilat Campus, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Eilat 8855630, Israel
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2892; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092892
Received: 26 August 2020 / Revised: 15 September 2020 / Accepted: 18 September 2020 / Published: 22 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
Microalgae have been considered as a renewable source of nutritional, cosmetic and pharmaceutical compounds. The ability to produce health-beneficial long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is of high interest. LC-PUFA and their metabolic lipid mediators, modulate key inflammatory pathways in numerous models. In particular, the metabolism of arachidonic acid under inflammatory challenge influences the immune reactivity of macrophages. However, less is known about another omega-6 LC-PUFA, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), which exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activities, which contrast with its delta-5 desaturase product, arachidonic acid (ARA). In this work, we examined whether administrating DGLA would modulate the inflammatory response in the RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line. DGLA was applied for 24 h in the forms of carboxylic (free) acid, ethyl ester, and ethyl esters obtained from the DGLA-accumulating delta-5 desaturase mutant strain P127 of the green microalga Lobosphaera incisa. DGLA induced a dose-dependent increase in the RAW264.7 cells’ basal secretion of the prostaglandin PGE1. Upon bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimuli, the enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β), was affected little by DGLA, while interleukin 6 (IL-6), nitric oxide, and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) decreased significantly. DGLA administered at 100 µM in all forms attenuated the LPS-induced expression of the key inflammatory genes in a concerted manner, in particular iNOS, IL-6, and LxR, in the form of free acid. PGE1 was the major prostaglandin detected in DGLA-supplemented culture supernatants, whose production prevailed over ARA-derived PGE2 and PGD2, which were less affected by LPS-stimulation compared with the vehicle control. An overall pattern of change indicated DGLA’s induced alleviation of the inflammatory state. Finally, our results indicate that microalgae-derived, DGLA-enriched ethyl esters (30%) exhibited similar activities to DGLA ethyl esters, strengthening the potential of this microalga as a potent source of this rare anti-inflammatory fatty acid. View Full-Text
Keywords: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid; microalgal biotechnology; prostaglandin E1; nitric oxide; immunomodulation dihomo-γ-linolenic acid; microalgal biotechnology; prostaglandin E1; nitric oxide; immunomodulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Novichkova, E.; Chumin, K.; Eretz-Kdosha, N.; Boussiba, S.; Gopas, J.; Cohen, G.; Khozin-Goldberg, I. DGLA from the Microalga Lobosphaera Incsa P127 Modulates Inflammatory Response, Inhibits iNOS Expression and Alleviates NO Secretion in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2892. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092892

AMA Style

Novichkova E, Chumin K, Eretz-Kdosha N, Boussiba S, Gopas J, Cohen G, Khozin-Goldberg I. DGLA from the Microalga Lobosphaera Incsa P127 Modulates Inflammatory Response, Inhibits iNOS Expression and Alleviates NO Secretion in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2892. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092892

Chicago/Turabian Style

Novichkova, Ekaterina, Katya Chumin, Noy Eretz-Kdosha, Sammy Boussiba, Jacob Gopas, Guy Cohen, and Inna Khozin-Goldberg. 2020. "DGLA from the Microalga Lobosphaera Incsa P127 Modulates Inflammatory Response, Inhibits iNOS Expression and Alleviates NO Secretion in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2892. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092892

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