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Immune Modulatory Effects of Vitamin D on Viral Infections

1
College of Health Science-QU Health, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
2
Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2879; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092879
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 29 August 2020 / Accepted: 31 August 2020 / Published: 21 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Inflammation, and Infectious Diseases)
Viral infections have been a cause of mortality for several centuries and continue to endanger the lives of many, specifically of the younger population. Vitamin D has long been recognized as a crucial element to the skeletal system in the human body. Recent evidence has indicated that vitamin D also plays an essential role in the immune response against viral infections and suggested that vitamin D deficiency increases susceptibility to viral infections as well as the risk of recurrent infections. For instance, low serum vitamin D levels were linked to increased occurrence of high burdens viral diseases such as hepatitis, influenza, Covid-19, and AIDS. As immune cells in infected patients are responsive to the ameliorative effects of vitamin D, the beneficial effects of supplementing vitamin D-deficient individuals with an infectious disease may extend beyond the impact on bone and calcium homeostasis. Even though numerous studies have highlighted the effect of vitamin D on the immune cells, vitamin D’s antiviral mechanism has not been fully established. This paper reviews the recent mechanisms by which vitamin D regulates the immune system, both innate and adaptive systems, and reflects on the link between serum vitamin D levels and viral infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; deficiency; hepatitis; Influenza; Covid-19; AIDS vitamin D; deficiency; hepatitis; Influenza; Covid-19; AIDS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Siddiqui, M.; Manansala, J.S.; Abdulrahman, H.A.; Nasrallah, G.K.; Smatti, M.K.; Younes, N.; Althani, A.A.; Yassine, H.M. Immune Modulatory Effects of Vitamin D on Viral Infections. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2879.

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