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Immune Modulatory Effects of Vitamin D on Viral Infections

1
College of Health Science-QU Health, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
2
Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2879; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092879
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 29 August 2020 / Accepted: 31 August 2020 / Published: 21 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Inflammation, and Infectious Diseases)
Viral infections have been a cause of mortality for several centuries and continue to endanger the lives of many, specifically of the younger population. Vitamin D has long been recognized as a crucial element to the skeletal system in the human body. Recent evidence has indicated that vitamin D also plays an essential role in the immune response against viral infections and suggested that vitamin D deficiency increases susceptibility to viral infections as well as the risk of recurrent infections. For instance, low serum vitamin D levels were linked to increased occurrence of high burdens viral diseases such as hepatitis, influenza, Covid-19, and AIDS. As immune cells in infected patients are responsive to the ameliorative effects of vitamin D, the beneficial effects of supplementing vitamin D-deficient individuals with an infectious disease may extend beyond the impact on bone and calcium homeostasis. Even though numerous studies have highlighted the effect of vitamin D on the immune cells, vitamin D’s antiviral mechanism has not been fully established. This paper reviews the recent mechanisms by which vitamin D regulates the immune system, both innate and adaptive systems, and reflects on the link between serum vitamin D levels and viral infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; deficiency; hepatitis; Influenza; Covid-19; AIDS vitamin D; deficiency; hepatitis; Influenza; Covid-19; AIDS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Siddiqui, M.; Manansala, J.S.; Abdulrahman, H.A.; Nasrallah, G.K.; Smatti, M.K.; Younes, N.; Althani, A.A.; Yassine, H.M. Immune Modulatory Effects of Vitamin D on Viral Infections. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2879. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092879

AMA Style

Siddiqui M, Manansala JS, Abdulrahman HA, Nasrallah GK, Smatti MK, Younes N, Althani AA, Yassine HM. Immune Modulatory Effects of Vitamin D on Viral Infections. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2879. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092879

Chicago/Turabian Style

Siddiqui, Maheen, Judhell S. Manansala, Hana A. Abdulrahman, Gheyath K. Nasrallah, Maria K. Smatti, Nadin Younes, Asmaa A. Althani, and Hadi M. Yassine 2020. "Immune Modulatory Effects of Vitamin D on Viral Infections" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2879. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092879

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