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Longitudinal Observation of Muscle Mass over 10 Years According to Serum Calcium Levels and Calcium Intake among Korean Adults Aged 50 and Older: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

1
Department of Family Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Centre, CHA University, Seongnam 13496, Korea
2
Healthcare R&D Division, Theragen Bio Co. Ltd., Suwon 16229, Korea
3
Department of Family Medicine, Seonam Hospital, Seoul 08049, Korea
4
Department of Family Medicine, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Wonju 26426, Korea
5
Department of Medical Education, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju 26426, Korea
6
Department of Family Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 06273, Korea
7
Department of Family Practice and Community Health, Ajou University Hospital, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2856; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092856
Received: 27 August 2020 / Revised: 12 September 2020 / Accepted: 16 September 2020 / Published: 18 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal change in muscle mass over 10 years according to serum calcium levels and calcium intake. A total of 1497 men and 1845 women aged 50 years and older were included. Significant muscle loss (SML) was defined as a 5% or greater loss from baseline, while time-dependent development of SML was assessed according to quartiles for corrected calcium level and daily calcium intake using Cox regression models. The incidence of SML was 6.7 and 7.7 per 100-person-years among men and women, respectively. Groups with the lowest corrected calcium levels had more prominent SML than those with higher calcium levels, regardless of sex. The relationship between SML and calcium intake was significant only among women. The hazard ratio for SML per 1 mmol/L increase in corrected calcium level was 0.236 and 0.237 for men and women, respectively. In conclusion, low serum calcium levels may predict SML among adults aged ≥ 50 years, while low calcium intake may be a predictor for muscle loss among women. Therefore, encouraging dietary calcium intake among middle-aged and older adults for preservation of muscle mass should be considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium; muscle; serum calcium; calcium intake; muscle mass calcium; muscle; serum calcium; calcium intake; muscle mass
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Kim, Y.-S.; Hong, K.-W.; Han, K.; Park, Y.C.; Park, J.-M.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.-T. Longitudinal Observation of Muscle Mass over 10 Years According to Serum Calcium Levels and Calcium Intake among Korean Adults Aged 50 and Older: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2856.

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