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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin Status and Diet in Elderly with Low and High Socioeconomic Status: The Lifelines-MINUTHE Study

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
3
DSM Nutritional Products, 4303 Kaiseraugst, Switzerland
4
Department of Health Sciences, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2659; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092659
Received: 6 August 2020 / Revised: 28 August 2020 / Accepted: 28 August 2020 / Published: 31 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Socioeconomic health inequalities are an important global public health problem. However, it is not well known to what extent socioeconomic inequalities culminate in impaired vitamin status and whether this is mediated by diet. We, therefore, aimed to assess vitamin status in a population already at increased risk of micronutrient deficiency, i.e., elderly with high and low socioeconomic status (SES), and to investigate whether potential differences therein were mediated by diet quality. Vitamin status in 1605 individuals (60–75 years) from the Lifelines- Micronutrients and Health inequalities in Elderly (MINUTHE) Study was assessed by measuring folic acid and the vitamins B6, B12, D, A, E, and K. Multinomial logistic and linear regression analyses were applied to test the associations between SES and vitamin status. Mediation analysis was used to explore the interrelationship between SES, diet quality, and vitamin status. Low SES was associated with poorer status of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and, notably, folic acid. Moreover, multivitamin deficiencies were more prevalent in the low SES group. Diet quality was found to mediate the associations of SES with folic acid (for 39.1%), vitamin B6 (for 37.1%), and vitamin B12 (for 37.2%). We conclude that low SES is a risk factor for a spectrum of vitamin deficiencies. Diet quality can partially explain the socioeconomic differences in vitamin status, suggesting that policymakers can mitigate socioeconomic inequality in nutritional status through improving diet quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamins; socioeconomic status; elderly; nutritional status; diet quality vitamins; socioeconomic status; elderly; nutritional status; diet quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, Y.; Minović, I.; Dekker, L.H.; Eggersdorfer, M.L.; van Zon, S.K.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Kootstra-Ros, J.E.; Kema, I.P.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Navis, G.J.; Riphagen, I.J. Vitamin Status and Diet in Elderly with Low and High Socioeconomic Status: The Lifelines-MINUTHE Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2659. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092659

AMA Style

Zhu Y, Minović I, Dekker LH, Eggersdorfer ML, van Zon SKR, Reijneveld SA, Kootstra-Ros JE, Kema IP, Bakker SJL, Navis GJ, Riphagen IJ. Vitamin Status and Diet in Elderly with Low and High Socioeconomic Status: The Lifelines-MINUTHE Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2659. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092659

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Yinjie; Minović, Isidor; Dekker, Louise H.; Eggersdorfer, Manfred L.; van Zon, Sander K.R.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; Kema, Ido P.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Riphagen, Ineke J. 2020. "Vitamin Status and Diet in Elderly with Low and High Socioeconomic Status: The Lifelines-MINUTHE Study" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2659. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092659

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