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Open AccessArticle

Identification of Genetic Factors Underlying the Association between Sodium Intake Habits and Hypertension Risk

Department of Family Medicine, Yongin Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 363, Dongbaekjukjeon-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si 16995, Korea
Theragen Bio Co., Ltd., Suwon 16229, Korea
Department of Family Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 211 Eonju-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06273, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors are co-first authors who equally contribute to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2580;
Received: 5 August 2020 / Revised: 16 August 2020 / Accepted: 22 August 2020 / Published: 25 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition)
The role of sodium in hypertension remains unresolved. Although genetic factors have a significant impact on high blood pressure, studies comparing genetic susceptibility between people with low and high sodium diets are lacking. We aimed to investigate the genetic variations related to hypertension according to sodium intake habits in a large Korean population-based study. Data for a total of 57,363 participants in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study Health Examination were analyzed. Sodium intake was measured by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We classified participants according to sodium intake being less than or greater than 2 g/day. We used logistic regression to test single-marker variants for genetic association with a diagnosis of hypertension, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, exercise, alcohol, smoking, potassium intake, principal components 1, and principal components 2. Significant associations were defined as p < 5 × 10−8. In participants whose sodium intake was greater than 2 g/day, chromosome 6 open reading frame 10 (C6orf10)-human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 rs6913309, ring finger protein (RNF)213 rs112735431, glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored molecule-like (GML)- cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily B member 1(CYP11B1) rs3819496, myosin light chain 2 (MYL2)-cut like homeobox 2 (CUX2) rs12229654, and jagged1 (JAG1) rs1887320 were significantly associated with hypertension. In participants whose intake was less than 2 g/day, echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 6(EML6) rs67617923 was significantly associated with hypertension. Genetic susceptibility associated with hypertension differed according to sodium intake. Identifying gene variants that contribute to the dependence of hypertension on sodium intake status could make possible more individualized nutritional recommendations for preventing cardiovascular diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium intake; hypertension; single-nucleotide polymorphism sodium intake; hypertension; single-nucleotide polymorphism
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Kwon, Y.-J.; Kim, J.O.; Park, J.-M.; Choi, J.-E.; Park, D.-H.; Song, Y.; Kim, S.-J.; Lee, J.-W.; Hong, K.-W. Identification of Genetic Factors Underlying the Association between Sodium Intake Habits and Hypertension Risk. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2580.

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