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Open AccessArticle

Association between Unhealthy Dietary Habits and Proteinuria Onset in a Japanese General Population: A Retrospective Cohort Study

1
Department of Nutrition, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa 9208641, Japan
2
Department of Nephrology and Laboratory Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 9208641, Japan
3
Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 9208640, Japan
4
Division of Internal Medicine, National Hospital Organization Kanazawa Medical Center, Kanazawa 9208650, Japan
5
Department of Nephrology, Kanazawa Medical University School of Medicine, Kanazawa 9200293, Japan
6
Kanazawa Medical Association, Kanazawa, 9200912, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092511
Received: 26 July 2020 / Revised: 13 August 2020 / Accepted: 16 August 2020 / Published: 19 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
The relationship between dietary habits and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. This retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine the association between unhealthy dietary habits and proteinuria onset, a key prognostic factor of CKD, among a Japanese general population aged ≥40 years. The risks of proteinuria onset were estimated based on the status of baseline unhealthy dietary habits (quick eating, late dinner, late evening snack, and skipping breakfast) compared with the status without these habits. A total of 26,764 subjects were included, with a mean follow-up period of 3.4 years. The most frequent unhealthy dietary habit was quick eating (29%), followed by late dinner (19%), late evening snack (16%), and skipping breakfast (9%). During the follow-up period, 10.6% of participants developed proteinuria. Late dinner and skipping breakfast showed an increased adjusted risk of proteinuria onset (hazard ratio (HR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.22, and HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.31, respectively). Unhealthy dietary habits were not associated with changes in body mass index or waist-to-height ratio during the follow-up period. Our results suggest that late dinner and skipping breakfast are associated with higher risks for proteinuria onset. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary habits; late dinner; skipping breakfast; proteinuria dietary habits; late dinner; skipping breakfast; proteinuria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tokumaru, T.; Toyama, T.; Hara, A.; Kitagawa, K.; Yamamura, Y.; Nakagawa, S.; Oshima, M.; Miyagawa, T.; Sato, K.; Ogura, H.; Kitajima, S.; Iwata, Y.; Sakai, N.; Shimizu, M.; Furuichi, K.; Hashiba, A.; Wada, T. Association between Unhealthy Dietary Habits and Proteinuria Onset in a Japanese General Population: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2511.

AMA Style

Tokumaru T, Toyama T, Hara A, Kitagawa K, Yamamura Y, Nakagawa S, Oshima M, Miyagawa T, Sato K, Ogura H, Kitajima S, Iwata Y, Sakai N, Shimizu M, Furuichi K, Hashiba A, Wada T. Association between Unhealthy Dietary Habits and Proteinuria Onset in a Japanese General Population: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2511.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tokumaru, Toshiaki; Toyama, Tadashi; Hara, Akinori; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Yamamura, Yuta; Nakagawa, Shiori; Oshima, Megumi; Miyagawa, Taro; Sato, Koichi; Ogura, Hisayuki; Kitajima, Shinji; Iwata, Yasunori; Sakai, Norihiko; Shimizu, Miho; Furuichi, Kengo; Hashiba, Atsushi; Wada, Takashi. 2020. "Association between Unhealthy Dietary Habits and Proteinuria Onset in a Japanese General Population: A Retrospective Cohort Study" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2511.

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