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Open AccessArticle

Lemon Extract Reduces Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Expression and Activity and Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Lipolysis in Mouse Adipocytes

1
Division of Biomedical Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
3
Department of Chemistry, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2348; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082348
Received: 26 June 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 3 August 2020 / Published: 6 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications. In this paper, we examine the possible beneficial role of lemon juice in dieting. Lemon extract (LE) has been proposed to improve serum insulin levels and decrease angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in mouse models. ACE is also a biomarker for sustained weight loss and ACE inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity in humans. Here, we show that LE impacts adipose tissue metabolism directly. In 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocyte cells, LE improved insulin sensitivity as evidenced by a 3.74 ± 0.54-fold increase in both pAKT and GLUT4 levels. LE also induced lipolysis as demonstrated by a 16.6 ± 1.2 fold-change in pHSL protein expression levels. ACE gene expression increased 12.0 ± 0.1 fold during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in the absence of LE, and treatment with LE decreased ACE gene expression by 80.1 ± 0.5% and protein expression by 55 ± 0.37%. We conclude that LE’s reduction of ACE expression causes increased insulin sensitivity and breakdown of lipids in adipocytes. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3T3-L1 adipocytes; lipolysis; angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity 3T3-L1 adipocytes; lipolysis; angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tejpal, S.; Wemyss, A.M.; Bastie, C.C.; Klein-Seetharaman, J. Lemon Extract Reduces Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Expression and Activity and Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Lipolysis in Mouse Adipocytes. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2348. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082348

AMA Style

Tejpal S, Wemyss AM, Bastie CC, Klein-Seetharaman J. Lemon Extract Reduces Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Expression and Activity and Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Lipolysis in Mouse Adipocytes. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2348. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082348

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tejpal, Shilpa; Wemyss, Alan M.; Bastie, Claire C.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith. 2020. "Lemon Extract Reduces Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Expression and Activity and Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Lipolysis in Mouse Adipocytes" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2348. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082348

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