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Article

Insulin Resistance Is Associated with Reduced Food Odor Sensitivity across a Wide Range of Body Weights

by 1,2,3,*, 4,5, 1,2,3,6, 2,6,7,8,9,10 and 1,2,3,11
1
IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig University Medical Center, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 27, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, [email protected] (K.W.)
2
Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstr. 1a, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
3
Leipzig University Medical Center, CRC 1052A5 ‘Obesity Mechanisms’, Liebigstr. 18, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
4
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg, University Hospital, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
5
Sensory Analytics, Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV, Giggenhauser Straße 35, 85354 Freising, Germany
6
International Max Planck Research School on the Neuroscience of Communication, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
7
Mind Brain Body Institute, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10099 Berlin, Germany
8
Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
9
Day Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, University Hospital at the University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
10
International Max Planck Research School on the Life Course, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, 14195 Berlin, Germany
11
Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082201
Received: 26 June 2020 / Revised: 18 July 2020 / Accepted: 20 July 2020 / Published: 24 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
The worldwide obesity epidemic is a major health problem driven by the modern food environment. Recently, it has been shown that smell perception plays a key role in eating behavior and is altered in obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not well understood yet. Since the olfactory system is closely linked to the endocrine system, we hypothesized that hormonal shifts in obesity might explain this relationship. In a within-subject, repeated-measures design, we investigated sensitivity to a food and a non-food odor in the hungry and sated state in 75 young healthy (26 normal weight, 25 overweight, and 24 obese) participants (37 women). To determine metabolic health status and hormonal reactivity in response to food intake, we assessed pre- and postprandial levels of insulin, leptin, glucose, and ghrelin. Odor sensitivity did not directly depend on body weight status/body mass index (BMI) or hunger state. However, we could establish a strong negative mediating effect of insulin resistance on the relationship between BMI/waist-hip ratio and olfactory sensitivity for the food odor. These findings indicate an impact of metabolic health status on sensitivity to food odors. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms behind altered smell perception in obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; odor sensitivity; olfaction; HOMA-IR; insulin resistance obesity; odor sensitivity; olfaction; HOMA-IR; insulin resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Poessel, M.; Freiherr, J.; Wiencke, K.; Villringer, A.; Horstmann, A. Insulin Resistance Is Associated with Reduced Food Odor Sensitivity across a Wide Range of Body Weights. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2201. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082201

AMA Style

Poessel M, Freiherr J, Wiencke K, Villringer A, Horstmann A. Insulin Resistance Is Associated with Reduced Food Odor Sensitivity across a Wide Range of Body Weights. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2201. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082201

Chicago/Turabian Style

Poessel, Maria, Jessica Freiherr, Kathleen Wiencke, Arno Villringer, and Annette Horstmann. 2020. "Insulin Resistance Is Associated with Reduced Food Odor Sensitivity across a Wide Range of Body Weights" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2201. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082201

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