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Immunologic Effects of Vitamin D on Human Health and Disease

1
Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research Laboratory, Section Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Weight Management, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 85 E Newton St, M-1013, Boston, MA 01228, USA
2
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072097
Received: 12 June 2020 / Revised: 9 July 2020 / Accepted: 12 July 2020 / Published: 15 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D on Immune Function)
Vitamin D is responsible for regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism and maintaining a healthy mineralized skeleton. It is also known as an immunomodulatory hormone. Experimental studies have shown that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, exerts immunologic activities on multiple components of the innate and adaptive immune system as well as endothelial membrane stability. Association between low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and increased risk of developing several immune-related diseases and disorders, including psoriasis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, sepsis, respiratory infection, and COVID-19, has been observed. Accordingly, a number of clinical trials aiming to determine the efficacy of administration of vitamin D and its metabolites for treatment of these diseases have been conducted with variable outcomes. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests that some individuals might benefit from vitamin D more or less than others as high inter-individual difference in broad gene expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to vitamin D supplementation has been observed. Although it is still debatable what level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is optimal, it is advisable to increase vitamin D intake and have sensible sunlight exposure to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L), and preferably at 40–60 ng/mL (100–150 nmol/L) to achieve the optimal overall health benefits of vitamin D. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; immune function; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; immunomodulation; autoimmune disorders; infectious diseases; lymphocytes; monocytes; macrophages; multiple sclerosis; type 1 diabetes; inflammation; endothelial membrane stability vitamin D; immune function; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; immunomodulation; autoimmune disorders; infectious diseases; lymphocytes; monocytes; macrophages; multiple sclerosis; type 1 diabetes; inflammation; endothelial membrane stability
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Charoenngam, N.; Holick, M.F. Immunologic Effects of Vitamin D on Human Health and Disease. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2097.

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