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Review

Relevance of Essential Trace Elements in Nutrition and Drinking Water for Human Health and Autoimmune Disease Risk

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Unit of Biology and Genetics, University of Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari, Italy
2
Department of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, 09123 Cagliari, Italy
3
Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, Monserrato Campus, University of Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2074; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072074
Received: 6 June 2020 / Revised: 8 July 2020 / Accepted: 9 July 2020 / Published: 13 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
Trace elements produce double-edged effects on the lives of animals and particularly of humans. On one hand, these elements represent potentially toxic agents; on the other hand, they are essentially needed to support growth and development and confer protection against disease. Certain trace elements and metals are particularly involved in humoral and cellular immune responses, playing the roles of cofactors for essential enzymes and antioxidant molecules. The amount taken up and the accumulation in human tissues decisively control whether the exerted effects are toxic or beneficial. For these reasons, there is an urgent need to re-consider, harmonize and update current legislative regulations regarding the concentrations of trace elements in food and in drinking water. This review aims to provide information on the interrelation of certain trace elements with risk of autoimmune disease, with a particular focus on type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. In addition, an overview of the current regulations and regulatory gaps is provided in order to highlight the importance of this issue for everyday nutrition and human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: trace elements; metals; metalloids; autoimmunity; autoimmune diseases; multiple sclerosis; type 1 diabetes; elements legal regulation; elements in water and food; water policy trace elements; metals; metalloids; autoimmunity; autoimmune diseases; multiple sclerosis; type 1 diabetes; elements legal regulation; elements in water and food; water policy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cannas, D.; Loi, E.; Serra, M.; Firinu, D.; Valera, P.; Zavattari, P. Relevance of Essential Trace Elements in Nutrition and Drinking Water for Human Health and Autoimmune Disease Risk. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2074. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072074

AMA Style

Cannas D, Loi E, Serra M, Firinu D, Valera P, Zavattari P. Relevance of Essential Trace Elements in Nutrition and Drinking Water for Human Health and Autoimmune Disease Risk. Nutrients. 2020; 12(7):2074. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072074

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cannas, Daniela, Eleonora Loi, Matteo Serra, Davide Firinu, Paolo Valera, and Patrizia Zavattari. 2020. "Relevance of Essential Trace Elements in Nutrition and Drinking Water for Human Health and Autoimmune Disease Risk" Nutrients 12, no. 7: 2074. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072074

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