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Open AccessArticle

Diet and Nutraceutical Supplementation in Dyslipidemic Patients: First Results of an Italian Single Center Real-World Retrospective Analysis

1
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
2
Nutritional Unit ASL-1 Imperiese, Giovanni Borea Civil Hospital, 18038 Sanremo, Italy
3
Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Unit, IRCCS Policlinic Hospital San Martino, 16132 Genoa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072056
Received: 18 June 2020 / Revised: 7 July 2020 / Accepted: 8 July 2020 / Published: 10 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Effects on Human Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism)
Background: Dyslipidemias are a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders mainly characterized by an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or other conditions, such as acute pancreatitis in hypertriglyceridemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet treatment and nutraceutical (NUTs) supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in outpatient dyslipidemic subjects, considering the influence of several factors (i.e., gender, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). Methods: 487 dyslipidemic patients spanning from 2015 to 2019 were treated with a Mediterranean diet or NUTs in a real-word setting and were retrospectively analyzed. General characteristics and lipid profile at baseline and after the follow-up period were evaluated. Results: Diet alone reduced total cholesterol (−19 mg/dL, −7.7%), LDL cholesterol (−18 mg/dL, −10.1%), and triglycerides (−20 mg/dL, −16.7%). Triglycerides (TG) decreased more in men, while women were associated with higher reduction of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Different types of NUTs further ameliorate lipid profiles when associated with diet. Nevertheless, most patients at low ASCVD risk (222 out of 262, 81.6%) did not achieve the 2019 ESC/EAS guidelines recommended LDL-C goals (i.e., LDL-C < 116 mg/dL). Conclusion: Lipid-lowering diet improves lipid profile, and NUTs can boost its efficacy, but taken together they are mainly unsatisfactory with respect to the targets imposed by 2019 EAS/ESC guidelines. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipid lowering diet; nutraceutical supplements; dyslipidemias; hypercholesterolemia; hypertriglyceridemia; EAS/ESC guidelines LDL-C targets lipid lowering diet; nutraceutical supplements; dyslipidemias; hypercholesterolemia; hypertriglyceridemia; EAS/ESC guidelines LDL-C targets
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Pasta, A.; Formisano, E.; Cremonini, A.L.; Maganza, E.; Parodi, E.; Piras, S.; Pisciotta, L. Diet and Nutraceutical Supplementation in Dyslipidemic Patients: First Results of an Italian Single Center Real-World Retrospective Analysis. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2056.

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