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Article

Skin Carotenoid Level as an Alternative Marker of Serum Total Carotenoid Concentration and Vegetable Intake Correlates with Biomarkers of Circulatory Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome

1
Innovation Division, KAGOME CO., LTD. 17 Nishitomiyama, Nasushiobara 329-2762, Japan
2
Department of Vegetable Life Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki 036-8562, Japan
3
Center for Advanced Medical Science, Department of Stress Response Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki 036-8562, Japan
4
Department of Social Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki 036-8562, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1825; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061825
Received: 1 June 2020 / Revised: 11 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Phytochemicals on Health Benefit)
To confirm the usefulness of noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids to indicate vegetable intake and to elucidate relationships between skin carotenoid levels and biomarkers of circulatory diseases and metabolic syndrome, we conducted a cross-sectional study on a resident-based health checkup (n = 811; 58% women; 49.5 ± 15.1 years). Skin and serum carotenoid levels were measured via reflectance spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Vegetable intake was estimated using a dietary questionnaire. Levels of 9 biomarkers (body mass index [BMI], brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity [baPWV], systolic and diastolic blood pressure [SBP and DBP], homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], blood insulin, fasting blood glucose [FBG], triglycerides [TGs], and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) were determined. Skin carotenoid levels were significantly positively correlated with serum total carotenoids and vegetable intake (r = 0.678 and 0.210, respectively). In women, higher skin carotenoid levels were significantly associated with lower BMI, SBP, DBP, HOMA-IR, blood insulin, and TGs levels and higher HDL-C levels. In men, it was also significantly correlated with BMI and blood insulin levels. In conclusion, dermal carotenoid level may indicate vegetable intake, and the higher level of dermal carotenoids are associated with a lower risk of circulatory diseases and metabolic syndrome. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoid; vegetable intake; circulatory disease; metabolic syndrome; non-invasive measurement; cross-sectional study carotenoid; vegetable intake; circulatory disease; metabolic syndrome; non-invasive measurement; cross-sectional study
MDPI and ACS Style

Matsumoto, M.; Suganuma, H.; Shimizu, S.; Hayashi, H.; Sawada, K.; Tokuda, I.; Ihara, K.; Nakaji, S. Skin Carotenoid Level as an Alternative Marker of Serum Total Carotenoid Concentration and Vegetable Intake Correlates with Biomarkers of Circulatory Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1825. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061825

AMA Style

Matsumoto M, Suganuma H, Shimizu S, Hayashi H, Sawada K, Tokuda I, Ihara K, Nakaji S. Skin Carotenoid Level as an Alternative Marker of Serum Total Carotenoid Concentration and Vegetable Intake Correlates with Biomarkers of Circulatory Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1825. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061825

Chicago/Turabian Style

Matsumoto, Mai, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Sunao Shimizu, Hiroki Hayashi, Kahori Sawada, Itoyo Tokuda, Kazushige Ihara, and Shigeyuki Nakaji. 2020. "Skin Carotenoid Level as an Alternative Marker of Serum Total Carotenoid Concentration and Vegetable Intake Correlates with Biomarkers of Circulatory Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1825. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061825

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