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Review

Uremic Sarcopenia: Clinical Evidence and Basic Experimental Approach

1
Division of Nephrology and Endocrinology, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan
2
Division of CKD Pathophysiology, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061814
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 27 May 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Considerations for Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease)
Sustained physical activity extends healthy life years while a lower activity due to sarcopenia can reduce them. Sarcopenia is defined as a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and strength due not only to aging, but also from a variety of debilitating chronic illnesses such as cancer and heart failure. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who tend to be cachexic and in frail health, may develop uremic sarcopenia or uremic myopathy due to an imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and catabolism. Here, we review clinical evidence indicating reduced physical activity as renal function deteriorates and explore evidence-supported therapeutic options focusing on nutrition and physical training. In addition, although sarcopenia is a clinical concept and difficult to recapitulate in basic research, several in vivo approaches have been attempted, such as rodent subtotal nephrectomy representing both renal dysfunction and muscle weakness. This review highlights molecular mechanisms and promising interventions for uremic sarcopenia that were revealed through basic research. Extensive study is still needed to cast light on the many aspects of locomotive organ impairments in CKD and explore the ways that diet and exercise therapies can improve both outcomes and quality of life at every level. View Full-Text
Keywords: kidney; sarcopenia; skeletal muscle; uremia kidney; sarcopenia; skeletal muscle; uremia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nishi, H.; Takemura, K.; Higashihara, T.; Inagi, R. Uremic Sarcopenia: Clinical Evidence and Basic Experimental Approach. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1814. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061814

AMA Style

Nishi H, Takemura K, Higashihara T, Inagi R. Uremic Sarcopenia: Clinical Evidence and Basic Experimental Approach. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1814. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061814

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nishi, Hiroshi, Koji Takemura, Takaaki Higashihara, and Reiko Inagi. 2020. "Uremic Sarcopenia: Clinical Evidence and Basic Experimental Approach" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1814. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061814

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