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Open AccessArticle

A Comparison of Vitamin and Lutein Concentrations in Breast Milk from Four Asian Countries

1
Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
2
College of Agriculture, Can Tho University, Can Tho City 900000, Vietnam
3
Central Research Laboratory, Maeil Co., Ltd., 63 Jinwiseo-ro, Jinwi-myeon Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi-do 17706, Korea
4
College of Food Science and Engineering, Changchun University, Changchun 130022, China
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
6
Faculty of Nursing and Medical Technology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
7
Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Home Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
8
Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061794
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 17 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Vitamins are the essential elements for human life and, particularly, for infant health. Human milk is the best source of nutrients for newborns, however, the information of vitamins in Asian maternal milk is still limited. In this study, we have collected 580 Asian maternal milk samples from Korea (n = 254), China (n = 137), Pakistan (n = 92), and Vietnam (n = 97). The vitamin concentrations, including vitamin B-groups (8 vitamins), fat-soluble vitamin (retinol, D, E, K) and lutein in the breast milk of were investigated. The concentration of thiamin (B1), biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9) in mother’s milk of four countries were not considerably different, while riboflavin (B2), pantothenic acid (B5), and pyridoxine (B6) level in Vietnam samples were significantly lower than those in other countries. In contrast, retinol (A) and tocopherol (E) were found to be higher levels in Vietnamese maternal milk. Korean and Chinese maternal milk had low concentrations of retinol that may cause vitamin A deficiency in children. However, Chinese mother’s milk was distinguished with a high concentration of lutein. Pakistani mother’s milk was observed as having a significant problem of folic acid (B9) deficiency. Regardless of the country, vitamin B12, K, and D did not seem to be provided sufficiently through maternal milk. The moderate positive correlations were found between vitamin concentrations in each country and the pooled sample. The data obtained in this study were able to provide vital information to assess the nutritional status of breast milk in Asian countries and contributed to the efforts of ensuring the best nutrition for Asian children. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; quantification; vitamin; liquid-chromatography; mass spectrometry human milk; quantification; vitamin; liquid-chromatography; mass spectrometry
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Nguyen, M.T.T.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Won, S.; Kim, Y.; Jung, J.A.; Li, D.; To, X.H.M.; Huynh, K.T.N.; Le, T.V.; Israr, B.; An, H.J.; Kim, J. A Comparison of Vitamin and Lutein Concentrations in Breast Milk from Four Asian Countries. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1794.

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