Dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to contribute to pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in red and processed meat and refined grains (HMD) would elevate plasma concentrations of protein-bound AGEs compared with an energy-matched diet high in whole grain, dairy, nuts and legumes (HWD). We conducted a randomized crossover trial with two 4-week weight-stable dietary interventions in 51 participants without type 2 diabetes (15 men and 36 women aged 35.1 ± 15.6 y; body mass index (BMI), 27.7 ± 6.9 kg/m2
). Plasma concentrations of protein-bound Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), Nε-(1-carboxyethyl) lysine (CEL) and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The HMD significantly increased plasma concentrations (nmol/mL) of CEL (1.367, 0.78 vs. 1.096, 0.65; p
< 0.01; n
= 48) compared with the HWD. No differences in CML and MG-H1 between HMD and HWD were observed. HMD increased plasma CEL concentrations compared with HWD in individuals without type 2 diabetes.
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