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Open AccessArticle

The High-Fat Diet Based on Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Causes Dysbiosis Linked to Colorectal Cancer Prevention

1
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
2
Center for Advanced Studies in Olive Grove and Olive Oils, University of Jaen, Campus las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaén, Spain
3
Agri-Food Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3), 14071 Córdoba, Spain
4
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBER-ESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061705
Received: 15 April 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 7 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Edible Oils)
The present study aims to examine the effects of three different high-fat diet (HFD) on mice gut microbiota in order to analyse whether they create the microenvironmental conditions that either promote or prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated colonic mucosa-associated microbiota in CD1 mice fed with HFD, based on 60% kcal from fat-containing coconut, sunflower or extra-virgin olive oil as the only source of fat. The main findings were as follows: (a) All HFD produced a decrease in the richness and diversity of the intestinal microbiota that was independent of mouse weight, (b) HFD switched Lactobacillus to Lactococcus. In general, the results showed that both sunflower- and coconut-HFD generated a pro-inflammatory intestinal microenvironment. In brief, coconut-HFD decreased Akkermansia and increased Staphylococcus, Prevotella and Bacteroides spp. abundance. Sunflower-HFD reduced Akkermansia and Bifidobacterium, while enhancing Sphingomonas and Neisseria spp. abundance. In contrast, EVOO-HFD produced an anti-inflammatory microenvironment characterised by a decreased Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Neisseria and Pseudomonas spp. abundance. At the same time, it increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and maintained the Akkermansia population. To conclude, EVOO-HFD produced changes in the gut microbiota that are associated with the prevention of CRC, while coconut and sunflower-HFD caused changes associated with an increased risk of CRC. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; sunflower oil; coconut oil; gut microbiome; Akkermansia; Neisseria; Staphylococcus; firmicutes; bacteroidetes; Prevotella inflammation; sunflower oil; coconut oil; gut microbiome; Akkermansia; Neisseria; Staphylococcus; firmicutes; bacteroidetes; Prevotella
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez-García, C.; Sánchez-Quesada, C.; Algarra, I.; Gaforio, J.J. The High-Fat Diet Based on Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Causes Dysbiosis Linked to Colorectal Cancer Prevention. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1705.

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