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Endo-1,3(4)-β-Glucanase-Treatment of Oat β-Glucan Enhances Fermentability by Infant Fecal Microbiota, Stimulates Dectin-1 Activation and Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in Immature Dendritic Cells

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Immunoendocrinology, Division of Medical Biology, Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University of Groningen and University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
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Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Wageningen University & Research, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University & Research, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
DSM Biotechnology Center, Alexander Fleminglaan 1, 2613 AX Delft, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061660
Received: 6 May 2020 / Revised: 29 May 2020 / Accepted: 1 June 2020 / Published: 3 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
Background: Non-digestible carbohydrates are added to infant formula to mimic the effects of human milk oligosaccharide by acting as prebiotics and stimulating the immune system. Although not yet used in infant formulas, β-glucans are known to have beneficial health effects, and are therefore of potential interest for supplementation. Methods and results: We investigated the in vitro fermentation of native and endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase-treated oat β-glucan using pooled fecal inocula of 2- and 8-week-old infants. While native oat β-glucan was not utilized, both inocula specifically utilized oat β-glucan oligomers containing β(1→4)-linkages formed upon enzyme treatment. The fermentation rate was highest in the fecal microbiota of 2-week-old infants, and correlated with a high lactate production. Fermentation of media supplemented with native and enzyme-treated oat β-glucans increased the relative abundance of Enterococcus and attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) in immature dendritic cells. This attenuating effect was more pronounced after enzyme treatment. This attenuation might result from the enhanced ability of fermented oat β-glucan to stimulate Dectin-1 receptors. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase treatment enhances the fermentability of oat β-glucan and attenuates pro-inflammatory responses. Hence, this study shows that especially enzyme-treated oat β-glucans have a high potential for supplementation of infant formula. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokine production; dendritic cells; infant formula; in vitro fermentation; microbiota; oat β-glucan cytokine production; dendritic cells; infant formula; in vitro fermentation; microbiota; oat β-glucan
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Akkerman, R.; Logtenberg, M.J.; An, R.; Van Den Berg, M.A.; de Haan, B.J.; Faas, M.M.; Zoetendal, E.; de Vos, P.; Schols, H.A. Endo-1,3(4)-β-Glucanase-Treatment of Oat β-Glucan Enhances Fermentability by Infant Fecal Microbiota, Stimulates Dectin-1 Activation and Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in Immature Dendritic Cells. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1660.

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