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Article

Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Adherence to the Healthy Food Pyramid in Spanish Adults

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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Preventive Medicine, Public Health and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
4
Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard School of Medicine, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061656
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 26 May 2020 / Accepted: 28 May 2020 / Published: 3 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Assessment in Human Health and Disease)
We aimed to design and validate a new questionnaire of adherence to healthy food pyramid (HFP) (AP-Q), to improve previous instruments. The questionnaire was self-administered and included 28 questions from 10 categories (physical activity, health habits, hydration, grains, fruits, vegetables, oil type, dairy products, animal proteins, and snacks). A population of 130 Spanish adults answered it, obtaining scores from each category and a global score of HFP adherence (AP-Q score). Validation was performed through principal components analysis (PCA) and internal consistency by Cronbach’s alpha. AP-Q was also externally validated with Kidmed-test, answered by 45 individuals from the cohort. The global AP-Q score was 5.1 ± 1.3, with an internal consistency of 64%. The PCA analysis extracted seven principal components, which explained 68.5% of the variance. The global AP-Q score was positively associated with Kidmed-test score. Our data suggest that AP-Q is a complete and robust questionnaire to assess HFP adherence, with several advantages: easy to complete, cost-effective, timesaving and has the competency to assess, besides diet, several features affecting health status, lacking in other instruments. We suggest that AP-Q could be useful in epidemiological research, although it requires additional calibration to analyze its reproducibility and validation in other populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; food intake; healthy food pyramid; nutrition; questionnaire design diet; food intake; healthy food pyramid; nutrition; questionnaire design
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gila-Díaz, A.; Arribas, S.M.; López de Pablo, Á.L.; López-Giménez, M.R.; Phuthong, S.; Ramiro-Cortijo, D. Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Adherence to the Healthy Food Pyramid in Spanish Adults. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1656. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061656

AMA Style

Gila-Díaz A, Arribas SM, López de Pablo ÁL, López-Giménez MR, Phuthong S, Ramiro-Cortijo D. Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Adherence to the Healthy Food Pyramid in Spanish Adults. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1656. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061656

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gila-Díaz, Andrea, Silvia M. Arribas, Ángel Luis López de Pablo, Ma Rosario López-Giménez, Sophida Phuthong, and David Ramiro-Cortijo. 2020. "Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Adherence to the Healthy Food Pyramid in Spanish Adults" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1656. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061656

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