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MK-7 and Its Effects on Bone Quality and Strength

1
R&D division, J-OILMILLS, Inc., Yokohama 230-0053, Japan
2
Fine Chemical Division, J-OILMILLS, Inc., Tokyo 104-0044, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040965
Received: 26 February 2020 / Revised: 24 March 2020 / Accepted: 28 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin K Intake and Human Health)
Vitamin K acts as a cofactor and is required for post-translational γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDP). The current recommended daily intake (RDI) of vitamin K in most countries has been established based on normal coagulation requirements. Vitamin K1 and menaquinone (MK)-4 has been shown to decrease osteocalcin (OC) γ-carboxylation at RDI levels. Among the several vitamin K homologs, only MK-7 (vitamin K2) can promote γ-carboxylation of extrahepatic VKDPs, OC, and the matrix Gla protein at a nutritional dose around RDI. MK-7 has higher efficacy due to its higher bioavailability and longer half-life than other vitamin K homologs. As vitamin K1, MK-4, and MK-7 have distinct bioactivities, their RDIs should be established based on their relative activities. MK-7 increases bone mineral density and promotes bone quality and strength. Collagen production, and thus, bone quality may be affected by MK-7 or MK-4 converted from MK-7. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the various properties of MK-7. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin K2; menaquinone-7; osteocalcin; bone metabolism; bone quality vitamin K2; menaquinone-7; osteocalcin; bone metabolism; bone quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sato, T.; Inaba, N.; Yamashita, T. MK-7 and Its Effects on Bone Quality and Strength. Nutrients 2020, 12, 965. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040965

AMA Style

Sato T, Inaba N, Yamashita T. MK-7 and Its Effects on Bone Quality and Strength. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):965. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040965

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sato, Toshiro; Inaba, Naoko; Yamashita, Takatoshi. 2020. "MK-7 and Its Effects on Bone Quality and Strength" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 965. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040965

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