This is an early access version, the complete PDF, HTML, and XML versions will be available soon.
Maternal Diet During Pregnancy and Blood Cadmium Concentrations in an Observational Cohort of British Women
Centre for Academic Child Health, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, 1–5 Whiteladies Road,
Bristol BS8 2NU, UK
Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 2BN,
Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions,
University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040904 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 March 2020 / Revised: 19 March 2020 / Accepted: 21 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
Few studies have investigated the extent to which diet predicts body Cd concentrations among women of reproductive age, and pregnant women in particular. The aim of this study was to examine diet as a predictor of blood Cd concentrations in pregnant women participating in the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Whole blood samples were analysed for Cd (median 0.26 (IQR 0.14–0.54) µg/L). Dietary pattern scores were derived from principal components analysis of data from a food frequency questionnaire. Associations between dietary pattern scores and foods/food groups with blood Cd ≥ median value were identified using adjusted logistic regression (n = 2,169 complete cases). A health conscious dietary pattern was associated with a reduced likelihood of B-Cd ≥0.26 µg/l (OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.39–0.81)). There were similarly reduced likelihoods for all leafy green and green vegetables (0.72 (0.56–0.92) when consumed ≥4 times/week vs ≤1 to ≥3 times/week) and with all meats (0.66 (0.46–0.95) when consumed ≥4 times/week vs ≤ once in 2 weeks). Sensitivity analysis excluding smokers showed similar results. The evidence from this studyprovides continued support for a healthy and varied diet in pregnancy, incorporating foods from all food groups in accordance with national recommendations, without the need for specific guidance.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited