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Article

Traditional Dietary Patterns and Risk of Mortality in a Longitudinal Cohort of the Salus in Apulia Study

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Population Health Unit —“Salus in Apulia Study”—National Institute of Gastroenterology “Saverio de Bellis”, Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
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Data Analysis Unit, National Institute of Gastroenterology “Saverio de Bellis”, Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
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Clinical Nutrition Unit, Medical Oncology, Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, University of Bari, School of Medicine, Policlinico, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
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Neurodegenerative Disease Unit, Department of Basic Medicine, Neuroscience, and Sense Organs, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70121 Bari, Italy
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Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Rehabilitation, Scientific Clinical Institutes Maugeri, IRCCS Institute of Cassano Murge, 70020 Bari, Italy
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Azienda ULSS 3 Serenissima, Primary Care Department, District 3, 30174 Venice, Italy
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German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
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Scientific direction, National Institute of Gastroenterology “Saverio de Bellis”, Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041070
Received: 10 March 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 10 April 2020 / Published: 12 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population-Based Nutrition Epidemiology)
There is still room for further studies analyzing the long-term health impact of specific dietary patterns observable in regions belonging to the Mediterranean area. The aim of the study is to evaluate how much a diet practiced in southern Italy is associated to a risk of mortality. The study population included 2472 participants first investigated in 1985, inquiring about their frequencies of intake of 29 foods using a self-administered questionnaire covering the previous year. The population was followed up for mortality until 31 December 2017. Cox-based risk modeling referred to single foods, food groups, the results of principal component analysis (PCA), and a priori indexes. Single food analysis revealed eggs, fatty meat, and fatty/baked ham to be inversely associated with mortality. Furthermore, one of the 5 PCA derived dietary patterns, the “Farmhouse” pattern, showed a higher hazard ratio (HR), mostly driven by dairy products. In subsequent analyses, the increased risk of mortality for fresh cheese and decreased risk for fatty ham and eggs were confirmed. The a priori diet indexes (Italian Meddiet, Meddietscore, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Mediterranean–DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay diet (MIND) indexes) showed borderline inverse relationships. In a Mediterranean population with an overall healthy diet, foods such as eggs and fatty meat, reflecting dietary energy and wealth, played a role in prolonging the life of individuals. Our study confirms that some dairy products might have a detrimental role in mortality in the Mediterranean setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthy diet indexes; food intake; apulia; mind index; dash index; med-diet score healthy diet indexes; food intake; apulia; mind index; dash index; med-diet score
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zupo, R.; Sardone, R.; Donghia, R.; Castellana, F.; Lampignano, L.; Bortone, I.; Misciagna, G.; De Pergola, G.; Panza, F.; Lozupone, M.; Passantino, A.; Veronese, N.; Guerra, V.; Boeing, H.; Giannelli, G. Traditional Dietary Patterns and Risk of Mortality in a Longitudinal Cohort of the Salus in Apulia Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1070. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041070

AMA Style

Zupo R, Sardone R, Donghia R, Castellana F, Lampignano L, Bortone I, Misciagna G, De Pergola G, Panza F, Lozupone M, Passantino A, Veronese N, Guerra V, Boeing H, Giannelli G. Traditional Dietary Patterns and Risk of Mortality in a Longitudinal Cohort of the Salus in Apulia Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1070. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041070

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zupo, Roberta, Rodolfo Sardone, Rossella Donghia, Fabio Castellana, Luisa Lampignano, Ilaria Bortone, Giovanni Misciagna, Giovanni De Pergola, Francesco Panza, Madia Lozupone, Andrea Passantino, Nicola Veronese, Vito Guerra, Heiner Boeing, and Gianluigi Giannelli. 2020. "Traditional Dietary Patterns and Risk of Mortality in a Longitudinal Cohort of the Salus in Apulia Study" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1070. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041070

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