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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Iron from Mature and Microgreen Fenugreek, Rocket and Broccoli

Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Life Course Sciences, King’s College London, Franklin-Wilkins-Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK
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Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041057
Received: 25 February 2020 / Revised: 7 April 2020 / Accepted: 8 April 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Iron deficiency is a global epidemic affecting a third of the world’s population. Current efforts are focused on investigating sustainable ways to improve the bioavailability of iron in plant-based diets. Incorporating microgreens into the diet of at-risk groups in populations could be a useful tool in the management and prevention of iron deficiency. This study analysed and compared the mineral content and bioavailability of iron from microgreen and mature vegetables. The mineral content of rocket, broccoli and fenugreek microgreens and their mature counterparts was determined using microwave digestion and ICP-OES. Iron solubility and bioavailability from the vegetables were determined by a simulated gastrointestinal in vitro digestion and subsequent measurement of ferritin in Caco-2 cells as a surrogate marker of iron uptake. Iron contents of mature fenugreek and rocket were significantly higher than those of the microgreens. Mature fenugreek and broccoli showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher bioaccessibility and low-molecular-weight iron than found in the microgreens. Moreover, iron uptake by Caco-2 cells was significantly higher only from fenugreek microgreens than the mature vegetable. While all vegetables except broccoli enhanced FeSO4 uptake, the response to ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) was inhibitory apart from the mature rocket. Ascorbic acid significantly enhanced iron uptake from mature fenugreek and rocket. Microgreen fenugreek may be bred for a higher content of enhancers of iron availability as a strategy to improve iron nutrition in the populace. View Full-Text
Keywords: microgreen; mature; vegetables; minerals; iron microgreen; mature; vegetables; minerals; iron
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MDPI and ACS Style

K. Khoja, K.; Buckley, A.; F. Aslam, M.; A. Sharp, P.; Latunde-Dada, G.O. In Vitro Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Iron from Mature and Microgreen Fenugreek, Rocket and Broccoli. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1057. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041057

AMA Style

K. Khoja K, Buckley A, F. Aslam M, A. Sharp P, Latunde-Dada GO. In Vitro Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Iron from Mature and Microgreen Fenugreek, Rocket and Broccoli. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1057. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041057

Chicago/Turabian Style

K. Khoja, Kholoud; Buckley, Amy; F. Aslam, Mohamad; A. Sharp, Paul; Latunde-Dada, Gladys O. 2020. "In Vitro Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Iron from Mature and Microgreen Fenugreek, Rocket and Broccoli" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1057. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041057

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