The investigation of new alternatives for disease prevention through the application of findings from dietary and food biotechnology is an ongoing challenge for the scientific community. New nutritional trends and the need to meet social and health demands have inspired the concept of functional foods and nutraceuticals which, in addition to their overall nutritional value, present certain properties for the maintenance of health. However, these effects are not universal. Nutrigenetics describes how the genetic profile has an impact on the response of the body to bioactive food components by influencing their absorption, metabolism, and site of action. The EbioSea Program, for biomarine prospection, and the Blue Butterfly Program, for the screening of vegetable-derived bioproducts, have identified a new series of nutraceuticals, devoid of side effects at conventional doses, with genotype-dependent preventive and therapeutic activity. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics provide the opportunity to explore the inter-individual differences in the metabolism of and response to nutrients, achieving optimal results. This fact leads to the concept of personalized nutrition as opposed to public health nutrition. Consequently, the development and prescription of nutraceuticals according to the individual genetic profile is essential to improve their effectiveness in the prevention and natural treatment of prevalent diseases.
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